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Offline SeanJohnson

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Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
« on: January 07, 2022, 11:47:11 AM »
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  • This thread desires to solicit suggestions regarding hearty crop, produce, and livestock suggestions, in preparation for COVID passports which will preclude Catholics from buying/selling (except amongst themselves, perhaps).

    Granted, this thread may also presume you have land to raise/farm/store these things, but not necessarily.

    This thread does not wish to deviate into bulk dry goods, canned foods, or other preps/prepping methods.

    It is only seeking breeds, species, or varietiesof crops/livestock.
    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #1 on: January 07, 2022, 11:50:25 AM »
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  • Apple trees!

    Very little maintenance involved, and some strains of apple tree will produce fruits which can be stored up to 7+ months.

    Here is one variety: The Honeycrisp (great for cold climates as well):

    "HoneyCrisp Apple Tree Info: (‘Keepsake’ x unnamed seedling) University of MN, 1991. An exciting apple that is exceptionally crisp and juicy. Flavor is sweet but well-balanced. Excellent storage life, up to 7 months. Has been rated equal to or higher in overall quality than ‘Haralson’, ‘Honeygold’ or ‘Keepsake’ in winter storage trials. Ripens in late September in MN and stores like a late season variety. Has become an outstanding commercial and home orchard variety because of its explosive crispness, flavor and storage life. Malus ‘Indian Summer’ is a good pollinator. (trial in zone 3). CPBR #1007, C®"

    In addition to its long-term storage capability, apples have the benefit of versatility: Cider, wine, spirits (brandy), applesauce, baked with cinnamin, crisps, pies, dehydrate, or plain.
    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #2 on: January 07, 2022, 11:57:49 AM »
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  • This website ranks the 10 best cold climate vegetables to raise (e.g., in places like Minnesota).

    I include it because it is important to think about how you will get nutrition during the winter months.

    Ideally, you will invest in heirloom seeds for these vegetable species while you still can: 

    In summary, they are: 

    1) Lettuce
    2) Kale
    3) Cabbage
    4) Tomatoes
    5) Squash
    6) Cucuмbers
    7) Peppers (this one kind of surprised me, but see their reasons) 
    8) Asparagus
    9) Radishes
    10) Eggplant (another surprise, but see their reason again)
    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #3 on: January 07, 2022, 12:02:35 PM »
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  • Cold-Hardy Livestock Breeds That Thrive Anywhere (Even In Alaska)
    Written by: Aryn Young How-To 3 CommentsPrint This Article title=Print This Article Print This Article 

    Cold-Hardy Livestock Breeds That Thrive Anywhere (Even In Alaska)
    Image source:
    Editor’s note: The writer lives in Alaska.
    Choosing the right livestock for your homestead is an important decision. You may know what kinds of animals you want — ducks, chickens, pigs, cattle, etc. — but how do you choose the right breed?
    Too often when choosing a specific breed of livestock, the winter hardiness of the animal gets overlooked. When winter rolls around with her cold breath, you want to ensure you have livestock that will require little supplemental heat. Heat is energy, and when you’re already trying to keep your family warm, you don’t want to waste precious energy trying to keep your livestock warm unless it is absolutely necessary.
    In this article, I will go over some of the common types of livestock people choose for their homestead and then explore some of the most winter-hardy breeds. For poultry, I will focus on breeds that are typically used for laying, assuming that any poultry kept through the winter will be primarily used as a source of eggs.
    Choosing livestock that is appropriate for your geographical area is incredibly important and can save you a lot of time and energy while making your winter preparations.
    It is hard to find more winter-hardy poultry than ducks. Domestic chickens evolved from tropical regions and by their very nature deal much better with drier and warmer conditions. Ducks and geese, on the other hand, can handle much colder and wetter climates with ease. Another benefit of ducks is that they require a lot less added light to keep them laying. In some areas of the country, you may not have to add supplemental light at all.
    Diatomaceous Earth: The All-Natural Livestock De-Wormer!

    Image source:
    Image source:
    Swedish Blue ducks are a winter-hardy bird that are known for both their meat and laying qualities. You can expect about 120-180 eggs a year from them, with males weighing about 8 pounds and females around 7 pounds. They do mature slower than some other breeds of ducks, however. Originating in Germany, they are very winter-hardy and have a calm temperament.
    If you are looking for a duck for just egg production, I recommend the Khaki Campbell duck. The Khaki Campbells we have on our Alaskan farm keep laying straight through the winter, and we are still getting good yields from ducks that are over a year and a half old. You can expect 250-325 eggs a year from the Khaki Campbells and, while they are a smaller duck, they are extremely cold hardy. Males top out at about 4.5 pounds and females around 4 pounds. They are very noisy, however, and can be flighty birds.
    Another duck you may consider is the Cayuga. They are very cold-hardy, and lay approximately 120-180 eggs a year. Males weigh about 7 pounds and females 6 pounds when mature. Although very loud, they are calm and only go broody occasionally.
    Chickens are a homestead staple. To have them lay throughout the winter, keep in mind that they will need added light during the darker winter months. Chickens lay best when they have at least 15 to 16 hours of light provided. When the amount of daylight dips below that, either keep a light on in their chicken coop, or set it on a timer to add the extra light needed when the sun goes down. Although you will need added light for chickens, if you choose winter-hardy breeds you may be able to avoid having to add extra heat.
    If you live in an extremely cold climate where frostbite can be an issue, you’ll want to choose a laying hen that has a small comb. The Chantecler chicken is an excellent example of a winter ready chicken. Originally bred in Quebec, these chickens are made to handle the extremely cold winters of the Canadian prairie. They have small combs and wattles, making them resistant to frostbite and will lay throughout the cold winter months. They do have trouble in extremely hot weather, however, so if you live in an area with hot summers, these may not be the right chickens for you.
    Another breed that we have been very happy with on our farm here in Alaska is the Black Australorp. The hens do have larger combs that could be susceptible if your winters are especially harsh, but they do extremely well in areas that have winter temperatures in the 10-35 degree Fahrenheit range. They are also prolific layers, laying 280 eggs a year or more.
    Although many homesteaders purchase piglets in the spring, raise them through the summer and then butcher them in the fall when the weather turns colder, there are several reasons you may want to keep pigs through the winter. Maybe you are starting to breed your own piglets for butcher or want to do two rounds of butchering a year instead of just one.
    When choosing a breed of pig to carry through the winter months, I’ve found it most beneficial to look to the heritage breeds. Heritage breeds of pigs typically do better on pasture and are hardier for the outdoors. Breeds that are used in confinement operations, like Yorkshire crosses, will invariably be bred to live in conditions that have them inside year-round with an extremely controlled environment. Heritage breeds retain a lot of the characteristics that make them suitable to living outside, and if you choose breeds that originated in climates with colder winters, they should do just fine with minimal shelter provided from you.
    After doing a fair bit of research, we finally settled on the Tamworth Hog for our Alaskan farm. One of the oldest heritage breeds found in the U.S., the Tamworth originated out of Ireland, where it was known for its ability to forage and grow on pasture. They have quite a bit more hair than some of your other breeds of pigs and do perfectly well in our winter climate. We know of one breeding operation in Michigan that lets their Tamworth sows give birth in the middle of winter with just a small shelter and straw, no added heat or attention. In addition to being hardy, the Tamworths are also extremely intelligent and very personable. We couldn’t be happier with them.
    Although it is always tempting to get whatever livestock may be readily available to you at your local feed store, it is always worth the effort to carefully research and select breeds with climate in mind. The result will be happier animals and a more efficient homestead.

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #4 on: January 07, 2022, 12:04:49 PM »
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  • 30 Best Cow Breeds for Meat and Milk You’ll Want to Know About
    By Jennifer Poindexter 


    Are you in the market for some cows? They are a great animal to begin raising because they can be so versatile.
    Some people like to raise their own beef. While others like to raise a cow for dairy. Whichever category you fall into, I thought you might want to know what breeds were actually out there so you could decide which breed would work best for your particular situation.
    So if this has been something you’ve been considering lately, then allow us to do your research for you and you just browse through this article until you find the perfect fit for your situation.

    Useful Cow Breeds for Your Homestead
    Here are the different breeds of cattle:
    1. Angus

    So many people in my area raise Angus cattle. The reason is that they produce quality beef, and a lot of people would rather raise their own beef than purchase it from the store.
    So if you are wanting to raise cattle for meat, then you should definitely look into this breed.
    2. Holstein Friesian

    via Istock
    Let’s change gears for a moment. If you are looking to raise a cow because you’d like to produce your own milk for cheese, butter, and other things, then you’ll want to consider this breed.
    Actually, when most people think of a cow, this is probably the type of cow you think of because it is used in so many adverts because this breed is known to be the highest-production breed for dairy.
    3. Hereford

    This breed of cow is another really popular breed. It is one used in many different parts of the world and in many different climates.
    But this breed is mainly used for meat production and it is in 50 different countries across the world. So it should adapt and do quite well no matter what climate you live in.
    4. Shorthorn

    The shorthorn was developed to be a dual purpose breed. That way people could raise one breed and get both dairy and beef products.
    However, it is said, that usually certain blood lines would come out stronger in one area than the other. Now, you can purchase either a beef shorthorn or a dairy shorthorn depending upon which purpose you’d like to have cattle for.
    5. Charolais

    The Charolais is a breed of cattle that was developed in France. They are raised mainly for beef and are often crossed with another beef breed, like Angus.
    But they are known for growing really well and producing quality meat and hides. So if you like to make leather from your cattle, this would be a good breed to consider.
    6. Galloway

    I love this breed of cow because of its fluffy coat. Looks aside, this is a great beef breed for someone interested in that purpose.
    But this breed is also one of the oldest breeds as well. It is named after the area in Scotland it originated, but it became a popular breed around the world when they began exporting them in the mid 1800’s.
    7. Simmental

    Photo via Dora Lee Genetics
    This would be a great multipurpose breed. The Simmental breed is one of the oldest breeds. It is a Swiss breed but has been raised in the United States since around 1800.
    Though it is raised in other parts of the world as a dairy cow, the United States usually produces them for beef. But they are known for being great dairy producers, large in size, and for growing quickly as well.
    8. Brahman

    This is the super cow when it comes to breeds. The Brahman breed is one of the oldest in the world. It has been able to adapt to the point that it can avoid falling ill due to most parasites, diseases, or other pests that cattle often come in contact with.
    Also, they have a large hump and horns which helps keep them cool. They are known for being able to sweat and deter pests that way. But they can even survive in harsh climates and when there isn’t adequate food. These cows are troopers!
    9. Limousin

    So if you want an ancient cow, this breed could be what you are looking for. When historians have studied ancient paintings from France, they found cattle in the pictures that look eerily similar to this breed.
    Though they originated in France, they can now be found all over the world. They are great animals to use for work, but they are mainly bred for beef.
    10. Scottish Highland
    Highland Cow

    This breed is pretty amazing. It began its time in the Highlands of Scotland (hence where they got their name.) During this time, they were able to build up resistance to many diseases that usually plague other breeds of cows.
    Now that this breed is all over the world, they do well in colder climates because they have long hair vs. a layer of fat to keep warm. But they do well in southern climates as well. This breed isn’t even picky about what it eats. You can put it out on pasture, and it is said to eat things most other breeds would turn their nose up at.
    11. Brown Swiss

    If you are looking for a dairy cow, then this could be what you’ve been searching for. It is second in line with the Holstein as far as milk production goes.
    So if you like the idea of being able to produce dairy right on your own land, then you should consider this breed.
    12. Texas Longhorn

    via TSHA
    If you are looking for lean beef, then you’ll like the Texas Longhorn breed. You will immediately recognize this breed because of the extremely long horns.
    But what is so interesting about this breed is that they weren’t actually set out to become a breed. The longhorns are a product of years of adaptation to their surroundings.
    13. Brangus

    This is an excellent choice of breed for a beef cow. It is actually a cross between the angus breed and a brahman.
    So if you like both of those breeds, but can’t decide on which type you’d like, then maybe you could meet in the middle with this breed.
    14. Jersey

    You hear people talk about Jersey cows a lot. My great grandfather actually raised them on his 11 acre farm. They are a smaller breed for a dairy cow, which makes them ideal for small farms.
    But they are also known for having a higher fat content in their milk. So if you like more fat in your milk, then you should consider this breed for that reason as well.
    15. Ayrshire

    This is a dairy cow that is larger in size. When I say larger, they usually weigh anywhere from 900 pounds to over 1300 pounds. That is a lot of animal.
    So you’ll definitely want to take their size into account because usually the larger the breed, the more maintenance they require because of the amount of food they need.
    16. Chianina

    We haven’t covered any Italian breed of cows on this list, until now. This breed originated in Italy, but is now used as a beef breed all over the world.
    But what makes this cow stand out so much is its size. This breed is one of the largest breeds of cows you can raise this day in age.
    17. Beef Master

    This breed produces some seriously buff cows. It is actually a crossbreed that has been around since about 1930.
    Now, it is used mainly as beef cattle because it is a cross between Hereford breed or a Shorthorn cow breed with a Brahman. No wonder the cows end up being so bulky and perfect for beef.
    18. Gelbvieh

    This cow was originally produced to be a three for one to anyone that owned this breed. The original purpose was to raise these animals to work the land, produce dairy, and also produce beef.
    However, now, most cows in this breed are usually used strictly to produce beef. They are big and look to produce quite a bit of meat.
    19. Dexter

    If you haven’t noticed most breeds of cattle that are produced in Europe have been pretty large cows. This breed is actually one of the smallest of the European produced breeds.
    In fact, the Dexter breed is about half the size of a Hereford and less than half the size of Friesian. So if you’d prefer a smaller breed cow, then you might want to check into this breed.
    20. Piedmontese

    via Paus
    This is another Italian breed of cattle. They have an interesting back story. Many years ago a breed of cattle that originated in Pakistan began to migrate into Italy. Because of the mountainous terrain they weren’t able to go any farther.
    So they ended up breeding with the native cattle and from that this breed was formed. They are used in Italy to produce specialty cheeses and are considered a delicacy with meat as well.
    21. Watusi

    I love the name and look of this cow. They have large horns that stick almost straight out of their heads which make them interesting in appearance.
    However, these cows are great for multiple purposes. Because they produce smaller babies, the males are used to breed a heifer that has never had a baby before. Their milk is also about 10% fat so a lot of farmers like this for dairy production or to breed with another dairy breed for good milk production and content.
    22. White Park

    This is definitely a larger breed of cattle. The heifers usually weigh in around 1400 pounds. While the bulls can be up to 2200 pounds.
    But this breed is obviously so treasured in the meat industry because of the high quality of meat they produce.
    23. Santa Gertrudis
    Santa Gertrudes

    This was actually the first beef breed to be formed in the United States. It is a mixed breed that contains both Brahman and Shorthorn.
    So if you are looking for an approved beef breed within the United States, this might be a good breed to check into.
    24. Braford

    If you haven’t already noticed, if you are going to have a beef breed of cow, then you will most likely end up with one that has both Brahman and Shorthorn or Hereford.
    Well, this breed is a cross between a Brahman and a Hereford breed. It is used for beef and judging by the large stature, you should get plenty of meat.
    25. English Longhorn

    The English Longhorn is another breed of beef cattle. They are large cows that are known for producing lean beef.
    But what makes this breed stand out is its long, curved horns. They curve around their face almost like pigtails.
    26. Beefalo

    Do you like the way bison burger tastes? If so, then you might want to consider this breed of cattle. It is actually a cross breed between a domesticated cow and a bison.
    So if you’d like meat that tastes a little different than your average beef, then you might want to consider raising this breed of cattle.
    27. North Devon

    Though this cow is quite large, don’t let it fool you. They are actually known for many wonderful characteristics, one of those being their docile nature.
    Also, they are known for being quite fertile, birthing easily, great at foraging, and they are also hearty animals that can adapt to different temperatures.
    28. Senepol

    This breed has developed into a great choice for beef, but they did not get an easy start when they were first developed in St. Croix.
    As a matter of fact, when these cows were originally produced it was for meat for those on the island. The cows that didn’t meet the standard the farmers set, were quickly killed. The farmers only reproduced the genes that they knew would work in the, often harsh, St. Croix environment.
    29. Maine-Anjou

    When this cow was first produced, again, people wanted an animal that could do more than one thing. At first, this breed was supposed to produce both dairy and beef.
    Now, it still could do this today if you desire. But most people who raise this breed use it only for beef.
    30. Red Poll

    According to my research, it is very difficult to find a breed of cow that will make their owners a profit year after year in the beef industry.
    But this breed, apparently, has been making people money from their beef since they made their way to the states over 130 years ago. That means they must produce some seriously high quality beef!
    So you now have 30 different breeds of cows that you can take into consideration before taking the plunge into raising cattle.
    But I’d like to know, why do you want to raise cattle? If you already raise cattle, what breed do you use? Why?
    We love hearing from you so please leave us your comments in the space below.

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #5 on: January 07, 2022, 12:06:30 PM »
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  • Meat rabbit breeds
    12 Best Meat Rabbit Breeds for Homesteads
    Farhan Ahsan April 4, 2014 Keeping Rabbits 18 Comments 145,799 Views

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    Rabbit meats is very commonly consumed all over the world and is used in making different delicious dishes which might include soups, stews, barbecue and roasting of the meat. You may find many Rabbit breeds for meat which is not only suitable for consumption of adults but also for kids. Rabbits are one of those animals or pets which can be easily raised and their maintenance and other expenses are very economical. You can build Rabbit hutch by looking at different Rabbit hutches plans on the internet, and the items needed are usually those which are available at home or can be purchased at a low cost rather than purchasing a commercial hutch which is comparatively expensive. The feeding of the Rabbits is not expensive either and so you can easily raise them for food or just having them as pets, however remember that not all Rabbit breeds are suitable for eating but only a few types of meat Rabbit breeds.
    The Rabbit meat falls in the category of white meat and is safe for consumption by people who are suffering from different diseases and also for those people who are on a strict diet and are cutting down fats in their diet. Rabbit meat is one of the best white meat which is available in the market and has many benefits. They have digestible protein which is low on fat; in fact they are almost fat less. Since there is no fat, the meat of Rabbit contains low calories and is cholesterol free making it highly recommended for cardiac patients, those who have cholesterol problems and those who are on a diet and want to lose weight. Another benefit of Rabbit meat is that they comparatively have lower sodium content which makes them safe for consumption by those people who have blood pressure problem due to sodium intolerance. Rabbit meat also have a good amount of phosphorus and calcium, it helps in normalizing the metabolism and is also highly recommended for cancer patients going under radiation therapy because it lowers the dose. If you are suffering from atherosclerosis, eating Rabbit meat on a regular basis can actually prevent it.
    You may also be interested in reading other similar articles such as giant rabbit breedspet rabbit breedsrabbit hutch plans and tips on raising rabbits.
    People slaughter the Rabbits, the skin and the meat goes for consumption whereas the fur goes for making of different items. Unlike other animals, inbreeding can occur in the Rabbits and there is no harm in it, they won’t be prone top diseases or have deformation in their offspring. Raising Rabbits for meat can be a good and money making activity. If you are thinking about raising them, then here are 12 best meat Rabbit breeds list:
     1) New Zealand Whites
    These rabbits originated in America and not New Zealand as the name would suggest. These are friendly, fluffy, white, large, smart, love to cuddle, and they have good meat to bone ratio of flavor meat. There is everything to like and nothing to dislike about the New Zealand White meat rabbit breed.
    New Zealand rabbit fur colors can be white, black, red, or a mixture of all three colors. The most popular color is pure white and these are the color that is bred most often. The New Zealand rabbits are the ones most often used to portray the Easter Bunny each year because of their pure white fur and easy going nature.
    These meat rabbits get very large and will weigh in at 11-12 pounds when mature. They will need a lot of space to move around in and they are happiest when around people. This a fast growing breed that will reach 8-pounds in 8-weeks.
    New Zealand Whites meat rabbits title=New Zealand Whites meat rabbits
     2) Californian Rabbits
    When raising meat rabbits, this breed is a good choice because of its versatility. The California rabbit can be used for meat, as a loving pet, and as a show rabbit.
    White soft fur covers the body and the ears, nose, and legs have black points. They enjoy interacting with humans and will follow you around and want to be cuddled.
    California rabbits will reach a mature weight of 9-10 pounds and have a good bone to meat ration. They originated in California in the 1920s and are a cross between Himalayan rabbits and Standard Chinchilla rabbits. The breed is healthy and has a life expectancy of up to 10 years when kept as a pet.
    Californian meat rabbits title=Californian meat rabbits

      3) The American Chinchilla
    These meat rabbits were originally bred for their grey fur and had rather small bodies. Mature American Chinchilla rabbits were bred to be small and only reach a mature weight of 5-7, but that has significantly changed over the years.
    The focus of breeding the American Chinchilla is not for pelt production but food and an adult reaches a mature weight of 9-11 pounds with an excellent bone to meat ratio. This a favorite meat rabbit to use to create smoked meat.
    The docile nature and fast growth rate make this one of the best rabbit breeds for meat for beginners. Females produce large kittens and have excellent mothering instincts, so this breed is ideal for adding to your farm when raising rabbits for meat.

    The American Chinchilla rabbit breed title=The American Chinchilla rabbit breed
    4) Flemish Giants
    This is one of the largest meat rabbit breeds, reaching a mature weight of 15-pounds and can reach up to 20-pounds. Originally from Belgium, Germany, they’re very popular in the United States as pets and meat. These large rabbits provide an excellent meat to bone ratio and the mild flavor is a family favorite.
    Fur color ranges include white, sandy, light gray, steel gray, blue, and black. The docile and friendly temperament of this gentle giant breed makes it a great choice for raising as a meat rabbit.
    The only challenge when raising Flemish Giants is finding enough space for them to roam around in. These rabbits are the size of a small dog and need space to move around in while remaining safe and secure.
    These fast growing large rabbits have a voracious appetite and will cost a little more than other meat rabbit breeds to raise.
    Flemish Giants Rabbit Breeds title=Flemish Giants Rabbit Breeds

    5) Silver Foxes
    These are great homestead rabbit and also fall in the fancy category and for producing meat. These breed are also very rare and may weigh 10 to 12 pounds. As the name suggest, they have silver body with black shading, just like a silver fox.
    Silver Foxes rabbit breeds title=Silver Foxes rabbit breeds
    6) Champagne D Argent
    Also known as the French Silver Beauty and Champagne, this meat rabbit breed originated in Champagne, France.
    A mature Champagne d’Argent weighs between 9-12 lbs and has full shoulders, deep hindquarters, long ears, and soft fur. They are born black and slowly turn silver with the silver color starting on their stomach and slowly working its way across the body.
    The body is wedged shaped, the ears are long and erect and the fur is short and very soft.
    This is a healthy breed and has a docile nature when socialized as a young kitten.

    Champagne D Argent Rabbit breeds title=Champagne D Argent Rabbit breeds
     7) Cinnamons Rabbits
    This is a rare breed that can only be found in the United States. Cinnamons are one of the best meat rabbits but are also ideal for pets, shows, and fur.
    They reach a large size of 9-11 pounds when mature and will need a lot of indoor or outdoor space to move around in. These are very friendly, docile rabbits and love to jump around and play.
    They make great pets, get along well with other animals, and have a life expectancy of 5-10 years. Cinnamons have good meat to bone ratio with a wedge-shaped commercial body type. Thier fur color is the same as ground cinnamon, with a dark stomach and an orange underlying tinge.
    Their nose and the outline of their ears and feet is dark smoky grey and they are highly prized for their unique coloration.

    Cinnamons Meat Rabbit breeds title=Cinnamons Meat Rabbit breeds
    8) Satins rabbits
    This is a cold hardy meat rabbit breed that will thrive outdoors in cold climates. They boast a thick fur that is also heralded for its beauty of uniquely shiny fur that is textured. These meat rabbits commonly weigh about twelve pounds when fully mature.
    Originally from the United States, Satins have a dense coat, medium build, broad, arched body with strong legs, broad head, and sturdy, upright ears. Their dense coat allows them to live outdoors in snowy, cold, winter environments.
    Fur color depends on the region in which the Satin was bred in. Black, blue, white, chocolate, chinchilla, and siamese are common in most countries. In the United States copper, red, and broken colors are common too.
    The United Kingdom has the widest color range of Satins that include bronze, chocolate, castor, cinnamon, fawn, fox, Himalayan, ivory, opal, and lynx. The soft, shiny, warm fur is in high demand so this rabbit breed will provide you with fur for making garment making or to sell in addition to meat.
    Satin rabbits are calm, friendly, and good-natured making them a good choice of meat rabbits to have around children. Their extraordinary shiny fur makes them popular for raising as show rabbits but they do have a high meat to bone ratio that makes them one of the best meat rabbits too. Satins are fast growing and will reach 5-pounds in 8-weeks.

    Satins rabbit breeds title=Satins rabbit breeds
    9) Rex Rabbits
    These soft and plush Rabbits were developed for the purpose of fur and meat. When mature, they may weigh around 8 to 10 pounds and may come in a variety of blue, amber and spotted patterns ion their color. The Rex can give you some good meat and is perfect for homestead.
    Rex Rabbit breeds title=Rex Rabbit breeds
    10) Florida White Rabbits
    This is a mixed-breed that was created by crossing an albino Dutch, an albino Polish, and a New Zealand White rabbit. The result was the small, flavorful meat rabbit called the Florida White.
    This compact, sturdy meat rabbit always has white fur and pink eyes. The head, feet, and bones are small and this breed will provide you with a meat ratio of 65%. The rabbit is smaller than many other meat rabbit breeds but the meat to bone ratio is much higher so the overall harvest is higher.
    This breed is hardy, healthy, docile, and quick to reach maturity. The adult weight will be around 6-pounds. The smaller size also makes this a good choice of meat rabbits to raise in small spaces.
    Their easy going nature makes them good to keep as pets and they have a life expectancy of 5-8 years. They are a hardy, healthy meat rabbit breed and females produce 6-8 kittens per litter.
    Florida White Rabbits title=Florida White Rabbits
    11) Palomino Rabbits

    These are good meat rabbit breeds for homestead and are also bred commercially for meat purpose. They have a good temper and so can be great homestead and may weigh 8 to 11 pounds.
    Palomino Rabbits title=Palomino Rabbits
    12) Altex Rabbit
    This rabbit breed is a commercial breed intended to produce bucks that will keep the population of Altex terminal cross fryers strong. All the bunnies in the litter sired by an Altex buck are used for meat and fur.
    The Altex breed gains weight rapidly and will reach a mature weight of 13 pounds and it’s one of the best breeds for meat. The Altex has a docile temperament and is easy to handle so this breed also makes a good pet. Shedding is not much of an issue if you choose this breed for a pet. Altex rabbits have short white fur and will develop grey fur on their upright ears and grey markings around the nose.
    Altex rabbits originated in the United States and have a fleshy build. They get along well with other rabbits and develop a close bond with them. They are happy living indoors or outdoors and thrive on a diet of vegetables and hay.
    Altex Rabbit title=Altex Rabbit

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #6 on: January 07, 2022, 12:07:46 PM »
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  • 21 Winter Fruits to Grow in Every Climate 

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Updated on Apr 21, 2021
    Kolby Milton via Unsplash
    When some parts of the country are blanketed by thick layers of snow, it’s hard to think about growing a garden. Other states experience warm, tropical climates year-round; but whether you're stuck in the cold or basking in the sun, your home-grown fruits don't have to hibernate until spring. Contrary to popular belief, there are quite a few species that actually thrive in cold weather.
    If you’re looking for delicious ideas for fruits that grow in winter, your options will depend on your location's USDA Plant Hardiness Zone. Different fruits thrive in different climates, and the United States Department of Agriculture has divided the U.S. into 13 unique zones to give gardeners a better understanding of what they can successfully grow.
    Read on to learn 21 of the best winter fruits to grow in your area, and enjoy the sweeter side of your green thumb no matter the weather.

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Honeycrisp Apples[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Harnesh KP via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]HARNESH KP / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Malus domestica 'Honeycrisp'
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-6
    If you live in zone three (parts of North Dakota) or zone four (parts of Nebraska), your growth options are somewhat limited. After all, these climates can reach minimum temperatures of -30 to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. Zones five through seven can also get cold, but they're often still warm enough to grow fruits. For instance, the latter zones can get as chilly as 10–20 degrees Fahrenheit, and include such areas as parts of Iowa (zone five), Ohio (zone six), and Virginia (zone seven).
    Honeycrisp apples are a great choice for growing fruits in colder climates, as this species thrives in zones three and four. They'll still require direct sunlight, so plant your Honeycrisp apple tree in a bright area outside (like the south-facing side of your home). These trees bear fruit with red, pink, and faded white colors, and can be fertilized in the spring with a nitrogen-based fertilizer to promote healthy growth.

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Apricots[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Aleksandr Kuzmin via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]ALEKSANDR KUZMIN / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Prunus armeniaca
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun or partial shade
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.7 to 7.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-8
    Apricots have been known to grow in zone four, but you'll have better success with this fruit if you live in zones five through eight. Like Honeycrisp apples, your apricot tree will grow best on the south-facing side of your home with direct sunlight. For best results, plant the tree during the late spring to allow it to establish a root system before the ground freezes during the winter. Some variants (like the Wescot apricot tree) are more likely to thrive and bear fruit after particularly cold winters.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Cherries[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Kolby Milton via Unsplash[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]KOLBY MILTON / UNSPLASH


    • Botanical Name: Prunus avium (Sweet Cherries), Prunus cerasus (Sour Cherries)
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.0 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-7
    Much of your winter fruit's success is related to the time of year it blooms: If your plant flowers in early spring, it will need warmer temperatures to thrive compared to later-blooming plants. Depending on the type of cherries they like, even people living in zone three can grow these trees in the winter. Sour cherry trees are the best candidate for colder zones, while sweet cherries require warmer climates like zones five through seven. Some varieties (like sweet cherries) are self-sterile, meaning you'll need to plant a second tree nearby to ensure your plant is pollinated well during the growing season.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Pears[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Westend 61 via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]WESTEND 61 / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Pyrus communis
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8
    This sweet, citrusy fruit grows on trees often found in zones four through eight, but specific variants (like Summercrisp pears) are suited for zone three. Since pear trees require plenty of cold weather before flowering in the spring, they're a great choice for people living in northern climates that experience plenty of freezing during the winter. If you're planting your first pear tree, try to choose a plot with access to direct sunlight and well-draining soil. Like cherry trees, this species often requires at least two trees planted nearby to help pollinate each other before bearing fruit.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Winter Squash[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]hαɾɾιson Eastwood via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]hαɾɾιsON EASTWOOD / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Cucurbita maxima
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.8
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-9
    Winter squash can be planted shortly after the winter's last freeze to produce fruit by fall. Since these plants require a longer growing season than many others (sometimes more than 100 days from planting before they're ready to harvest), it's important to get familiar with your area's common freeze dates and plant your winter squash as early as possible. With plenty of sunlight and well-draining soil, your plant's fruit can ripen late in the fall and even into early winter.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Plums[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Monika Grabkowska on Unsplash[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]MONIKA GRABKOWSKA / UNSPLASH


    • Botanical Name: Prunus domestica
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9
    Most types of plum trees are typically ready to harvest between late spring and fall, but the European variant can bear fruit into the early winter. This hearty stone fruit is suitable to eat fresh, but is also commonly used in recipes like jams, jellies, and other spreads. Since they're able to survive in colder temperatures, your plum tree can thrive if you live anywhere between zones four through nine. Be sure to plant it in an area with full sun—especially if your area experiences cold winters—with well-draining soil to prevent excess moisture.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Grapes[/font]
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]ALEXANDRA GRABLEWSKI / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Vitis
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun or partial shade
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-11
    Grapes are one of the more versatile winter fruits, as they can survive anywhere from zones four through eleven depending on the species. American grapes thrive in zones four through eight, while other variants like European and Muscadine grapes prefer warmer weather. If you live in a moderate climate zone, you'll be glad to learn that the American species are great for use as table grapes (as opposed to wine grapes). Plant your grapes in the early spring in an area with full sun or partial shade. Harvest the fruit in the late fall in northern areas, or throughout the winter if you live in a hotter climate.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Mandarin Oranges[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Verdina Anna via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]VERDINA ANNA / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Citrus reticulata
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 8b-11
    Not all of the U.S. faces blizzards in the wintertime. If you live in a warmer climate, such as zone eight (including parts of Arizona) or zone nine (including parts of Nevada), you have more growth options at your disposal than other areas. Temperatures in these climates seldom dip below freezing, and they present the ideal year-round growing conditions—particularly for citrus fruits.
    Mandarin oranges, in the same family as tangerines and clementines, present a sweet, citrusy taste associated with many tropical fruits. Rather than bearing fruit in the spring or summer, your plant will produce its oranges in the late fall or early winter. If you live in colder areas of the country, you can also plant your mandarin orange tree in a large pot to bring it indoors during freezing temperatures. Choose a south-facing area of your home to plant these trees outdoors, and fertilize them with citrus fertilizer between early spring and summer.

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Lemons[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Gemma Evans via Unsplash[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]GEMMA EVANS / UNSPLASH


    • Botanical Name: Citrus limon
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-11
    Although lemon trees can be grown in colder areas like zone eight, you'll have better success growing this species if you live in zones nine through 11. Your plant will produce the most fruit when it's placed in an area with full sun, so choose a location on the south- or southeast-facing side of your home. Additional moisture helps protect these trees from frost, meaning regular waterings through the winter can make the difference between a successful or subpar harvest in the summer. Your tree will start producing fruit when it's between three and five years old (so if it's not ready quite yet, it might still need more time to reach maturity).
    Because lemon trees are more finicky and sensitive to frost than other citrus trees, you'll want to plant yours in a large pot to bring indoors during colder temperatures if you live in an area susceptible to freezes.

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Kiwis[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Ansonmiao via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]ANSONMIAO / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Actinidia deliciosa
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun or partial shade
    • Soil Type: Well-draining soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 7-9
    If you live in a warmer climate, kiwis can make a great option for easy growing. These plants grow on vines, and because they ripen in both winter and spring, they're an excellent choice to enjoy during the colder months. Your kiwi plant may take several years to reach maturity—so opt for an adult plant from a local nursery if you're ready to start harvesting its fruit early. Plant your kiwi vines in an area with full sun or partial shade, and choose sunnier areas for greater fruit production.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Kumquats[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Limpido via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]LIMPIDO / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Citrus japonica
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 8-11
    Zone 11 makes up the warmest and most tropical-friendly climate in the United States. It’s also the smallest zone, limited primarily to Florida's southern tip and a small section of coastal Los Angeles. If you live in one of these areas, you have access to growth opportunities not available in other parts of the nation.
    Kumquat trees are ideal for warmer climates, as they thrive in zones nine through 11 (and can even be successful in zone eight under the right conditions). In any of these zones, you'll want to plant your kumquat tree in a south-facing area outdoors that receives plenty of direct sunlight. Water is key to keep these trees growing healthy: To prevent the soil from becoming too dry, be sure to water your tree regularly and mist it several times per week during the hotter months of the year. Plant your tree in the early spring to let it establish strong roots before winter, and prepare to harvest its fruit between late fall and early spring.

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Pomelos[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Thai Thu via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]THAI THU / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Citrus maxima
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy, clay, or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 7
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-11
    Pomelo trees are known for their large green citrus fruit, which can reach anywhere from four to 12 inches in length at maturity. Since this species isn't too finicky about its soil, it's a great option for those who live in areas with clay soil that other citrus trees can't thrive in (although it will grow best in loamy or sandy mixtures). Your pomelo tree will require plenty of sun, so be sure to plant it in an area that receives direct light like the south- or southeast-facing side of your home. These citrusy fruits taste similar to grapefruit, and can be harvested between late fall and early spring.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Avocados[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Lacaosa via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]LACAOSA / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Persea americana
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or cactus soil
    • Soil pH: 5.0 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-11
    Avocado trees are best known for their growth in tropical areas, so you'll need to live in zones nine through 11 in order for yours to thrive outdoors year-round (although Mexican avocado trees can survive in zone eight). Plant your tree during spring to allow it to mature before the heat of the summer sets in, and water it regularly—a few times per week—to ensure its roots don't become dry. Harvest fruit from your avocado tree as individual bunches become ripe between late winter and early fall each year.
     It's Actually So Easy to Grow Your Own Avocados at Home

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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Passion Fruits[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Antoniu Rosu / 500px via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]ANTONIU ROSU / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Passiflora edulis
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.5 to 7.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 10-12
    Unlike many other winter-thriving fruits that grow on trees, passion fruit grows on a vine. The most common variant bears fruit of pink and purple colors with a sweet, slightly tart flavor. This species requires several hours of full sun per day, so plant it in an area with bright, direct light and minimal wind. You'll want to water your passion fruit plant two to three times per week to keep its roots moist, and ensure the entirety of the soil is wet to prevent it from drying out. These plants can flower year-round in tropical climates, so check individual batches for ripeness before harvesting during the winter.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Figs[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Winslow Productions via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]WINSLOW PRODUCTIONS / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Ficus carica
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun to partial shade
    • Soil Type: Well-draining soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 8-10
    If you live in a more tropical climate, your fig tree can produce fruit in late summer and through the early winter. Variants like the Brown Turkey fig are ideal for warmer areas, and like many types of fig trees, they don't prefer much water. Allow your fig tree to dry out between waterings. When it's ready to produce, you'll find sweet, brown to purple-colored fruits that can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of recipes.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Pomegranates[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Fabian Krause/EyeEm via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]FABIAN KRAUSE / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Punica granatum
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 8-11
    Pomegranate trees grow best in warmer climates, but unlike many tropical species, they tend to prefer a hot, dry climate without excess water. This sweet, slightly tart fruit is excellent to eat fresh or prepared in smoothies and other recipes. The height of the harvest season begins in late summer to early fall, and in hotter zones, you'll be able to harvest into the winter months as long as your tree keeps bearing new fruit. Plant your tree in an area with plenty of full sun, and opt for spots with either loamy or sandy soil that doesn't retain extra moisture.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Guavas[/font]
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]MURILO GUALDA / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Psidium guajava
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining soil
    • Soil pH: 4.5 to 7.0
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-12
    This tropical fruit is a special treat for those who live in tropical climates. Commonly found in Florida, Hawaii, and parts of Texas and California, guava trees prefer humid weather. For the most successful fruit production, plant your tree in an area with well-draining soil and full sun. Sandy, acidic soil is ideal for this species to grow to maturity, and you'll also want to prune your tree as necessary to keep its height manageable and ensure easy harvests.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Grapefruits[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Brett Stevens via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]BRETT STEVENS / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Citrus × paradisi
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-12
    Grapefruit comes into season in January, so it’s an excellent fruit to enjoy during those chilly winter months on the West Coast, in Florida, and in parts of Texas and Arizona. Planting grapefruits is relatively easy: Remove the seeds from a fresh grapefruit, then plant them in a pot filled almost to the top with soil. Leave the pot in a well-lit window, then keep the soil moist (but not soggy). When your plant has established a strong root system, transfer it outdoors to a place with full sun and well-draining soil.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Jackfruits[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Norhidayah Zaaffar/EyeEm via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]NORHIDAYAH ZAAFFAR / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Artocarpus heterophyllus
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 10-12
    Puerto Rico makes up zones 12 and 13, which can get mighty hot. In fact, the average temperature year-round is 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Not many fruits and veggies can stand such heat, but there are a select few: And jackfruit trees are a great option. This extra-large fruit weighs in at an average of 35 pounds, and its trees have been known to reach 80 feet in height. Plant your jackfruit tree in an area with plenty of direct sunlight and well-draining soil, ensuring it receives the right balance of nutrients to produce a large harvest of fruit.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Starfruits[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Narintorn Pornsuknimitkul/EyeEm via Getty Images[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]NARINTORN PORNSUKNIMITKUL / GETTY IMAGES


    • Botanical Name: Averrhoa carambola
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy soil
    • Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 9-11
    Starfruit trees thrive outdoors in zones nine through 11, but can also be grown in a pot and moved indoors for the winter in zones as low as four. This species is characterized by its fruit, which grows in bright yellow rounded shapes that resemble a star when sliced. Since it's native to tropical climates, your starfruit tree will continue to produce fruit from late summer through early spring—making it an ideal winter fruit to enjoy. Like other hot weather species, these trees require plenty of direct sunlight with well-draining, loamy soil.
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    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Pineapples[/font]
    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]Pineapple Supply Co. on Unsplash[/font][/color]

    [font=Renner*, Helvetica, sans-serif]PINEAPPLE SUPPLY CO. / UNSPLASH


    • Botanical Name: Ananas comosus
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
    • Soil Type: Well-draining, loamy or sandy soil
    • Soil pH: 4.5 to 6.5
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 11-12
    This sweet, juicy fruit might just be the best-known staple of tropical harvests. While pineapples are certainly delicious, they are also very slow to mature: In fact, some plants can take up to two years. Cut the crown off a ripe pineapple, remove the lower leaves, and plant the exposed stalk in a planter. Water it lightly and leave the planter in the sunlight, then plant it in the ground once it has an established root system.

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #7 on: January 07, 2022, 12:11:03 PM »
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  • All About Growing Winter Grains

    By Barbara Pleasant

    1 / 2

    Among their potential uses on your homestead, winter grains can be a homegrown source of soil-improving mulch.
    (For details on growing many other vegetables and fruits, visit our Crop at a Glancecollection page.)
    If grown from fall to spring, cold-hardy grains safeguard soil from erosion, suppress weeds and add organic matter to your soil. You can harvest and eat your homegrown whole grains — especially winter wheat — or use them as forage for poultry and other livestock.
    Types to Try
    Oats quickly produce lush, grassy foliage, which is typically killed by temperatures below 10 degrees Fahrenheit. In regions where the oats die in winter, the dead foliage becomes maintenance-free mulch that you can leave in place and plant through in spring.
    Winter barley is slightly hardier than oats and winterkills when temperatures drop below zero. Alive or dead, winter barley makes great mulch or poultry forage.
    Triticale is a cross between wheat and rye, and can tolerate subzero temperatures. Triticale’s abundant greens and nutritious seeds make it good animal forage.
    Wheat varies in its cold tolerance. You can produce a wheat crop in late spring if you sow a hardy variety in fall.
    Spelt, a primitive wheat, produces berries with a unique, nutty flavor.
    Cereal rye has renowned cold tolerance, and will grow in lean, sandy soils, so it’s ideal for improving new garden plots.
    Check out our chart of winter grains for more details on oats, winter barley, triticale, wheat and cereal rye. Fedco Organic Growers Supply offers an excellent selection of grains at better prices than most sources.
    When to Plant Winter Grains
    You should plant the least hardy grains first, followed by hardier species as the first frost approaches. (Find your frost dates on our What to Plant Now pages.)
    Ten to 12 weeks before your first fall frost, start sowing seeds of oats or winter barley. In areas with mild winters, they can be planted up to six weeks before the first fall frost date.
    Eight to 10 weeks before your first fall frost date, sow seeds of triticale, wheat and spelt. (Many state extension services publish recommended dates for growing wheat, which often has a tight interval for seed sowing.) In areas with mild winters, you can plant these grains up to four weeks before the first fall frost date.
    Four to eight weeks before your first fall frost date, sow seeds of cereal rye. Cereal rye can be planted until the first fall frost date in areas with mild winters.
    How to Plant Winter Grains
    All grains need fertile, well-drained soil and a near-neutral pH (about 6.0). If possible, sow winter grains into the stubble of a previous crop instead of planting into a clean bed. Any vegetation at the surface will help block wind and catch snow, which enhances the winter hardiness of all grains. Use a rake or hand trowel to rough up the soil’s surface, then plant seeds about 1 inch deep and 1 to 2 inches apart. Firmly tamp the seeds into place with the back of a rake, then water the area. Keep the soil lightly moist until the seedlings emerge.
    Harvesting and Storing Winter Grains
    Oats and barley planted in late summer grow into lush, green plants that will regrow if cut back when they are 2 feet tall. Use the greens as mulch, or feed them to animals or your compost pile. Allow wheat, rye and their relatives to grow until late spring. To utilize them as mulch-producing cover crops, cut the plants back to 3 inches when they are knee-high (first cutting), and make a second cutting two weeks later before digging out the plants or turning them under.
    With grains you plan to harvest for food, allow the plants to grow uncut. Harvest when the seed heads dry to light brown but still show streaks of green. Use a scythe or heavy scissors to cut off the tops, leaving about 12 inches of stem attached. Bind big handfuls into bundles (called sheaves) using string or rubber bands. Hang your sheaves in a dry place, or arrange them in single layers on a drying table. Depending on weather conditions, the grain will be dry enough to thresh in one to two weeks.
    Of the many ways to thresh grain, one of the easiest is to knock the dried tops against the sides of a clean barrel or deep bucket. You could also place the grain tops in a clean pillowcase and crunch them with your hands. Next, winnow the grain by pouring it back and forth between broad bowls or pans in front of a fan, which will blow away the chaff (seed husks and bits of stem).
    Tiny insects often hide in harvested grain, but freezing easily kills them. If you can’t permanently store your grain in a freezer, freeze it for a week and then store it in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.
    Saving Seeds
    Saving grain seeds for replanting is as simple as setting aside some of your harvested grains. As you sort your crop, select the largest, prettiest grains for your planting stock. Stored in cool, dry conditions, grain seeds remain viable for at least two years.
    Pests and Diseases
    Used in rotation with vegetables, winter grains interrupt the life cycles of soilborne pests and diseases.
    The Hessian fly can be a serious threat to fall-planted grains, especially wheat planted in early fall. Your best defense is to delay planting until cool weather ends the Hessian fly’s yearly life cycle.
    Insect-vectored viral diseases, including barley yellow dwarf virus and wheat streak mosaic virus, cause plants to become stunted and develop red or yellow streaks. You can best prevent these diseases by planting grains after nearby corn or other grains have been harvested.
    Growing Tips
    Winter grains make beautiful, edible ornamentals: Try growing them in stands as lawn alternatives in places where you can watch them dance in the wind.
    Widely spaced cereal rye plants are stiff enough to support spring peas as a natural trellis.
    If you plan to eat your oats or barley, try growing hull-less (also known as “naked”) varieties for easier post-harvest processing.
    In colder climates, plant edible grains in early spring to prevent winterkill. Check with your local extension office for recommended planting times.

    In the Kitchen

    Simmered in lightly salted water for about 45 minutes, wheat or spelt “berries” and hulled oat “groats” become chewy and slightly nutty. Mix cooked whole grains with yogurt or fruit for breakfast, or combine them with vegetables in cold salads. You can grind small amounts of dry whole grain in a coffee mill or food processor, and you can use a grain mill to produce your own high-quality, whole-grain flour. All whole grains can be sprouted — an easy way to eat your homegrown grains if you don’t have a mill. Add sprouted whole grains to salads, or chop them up and use them in breads. Whole grains are a good source of fiber, protein and iron.

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline bodeens

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #8 on: January 07, 2022, 12:12:07 PM »
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  • Cows are less feed efficient (worse conversion ratio) than Nigerian Dwarf goats for milk and the Nigerians don't need pasteurization for their milk btw.
    "We dare not even start to hope until the Faith, the true Faith, and its revealed content, are secured in our minds. Only in terms of Faith do we dare to hope."

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #9 on: January 07, 2022, 12:14:32 PM »
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  • Cows are less feed efficient (worse conversion ratio) than Nigerian Dwarf goats for milk and the Nigerians don't need pasteurization for their milk btw.


    18 Best Goat Breeds for Milk and Meat Production
    By MorningChores Staff

    Goat is one of the most popular animals for milk and meat production. These cute, friendly animals are much easier to raise than cows, making them the best animal to raise for a small-scale farmer or homesteader.
    However, just like cats and dogs, there are different breeds of goats.
    Each breed has different meat and milk production rate, if you want to get the most out of your goat, you need to raise the right breed in the first place.
    In this article, you’ll learn what is the best goat breeds for milk and meat.
    Goat Breeds for Milk
    Goat milk is known for having less lactose than other types of milk; it’s easier to digest for people who suffer from Lactose Intolerance. For this and many other reasons, the demand for goat milk is higher than ever.
    Plus, who doesn’t love good goat cheese in a salad or on a sandwich?
    When looking for a good goat for producing milk, goats must be able to produce a lot of milk. It’s also preferred if the milk can have a higher fat content.
    Here are some of the most popular goat breeds for milk.
    1. Alpine
    goat breeds

    Photo by Gary Crossey
    These goats derive from the French Alps, so they are also often called French Alpine goats. The Alpine goat can produce 1 – 2 gallons of milk again. The average about of fat in the milk is 3.5%, which is high. This milk is used to make many thick substances made from milk, such as butter, cheese, and ice cream.
    2. LaMancha

    LaMancha goats are not only great for milk, but they are also friendly. These goats have a great personality. They can also be raised in America. However, these goats originate from Spain. Their milk has 4.2% fat concentration.
    These goats have small ears or no ears.
    3. Nubian
    goat breeds

    Photo by TTaylor
    Nubian goats were first bred in England in the 1920s – 1930s.
    Nubian goats have one the largest fat content of any of the goat breeds at 5%. They can produce .5 – 1.5 gallons of milk a day. While this isn’t the highest milk producer of the dairy goats, it can produce milk all year long.
    The Nubian goats have long, floppy ears, and they are the largest of the dairy goats. Because these goats weigh more and have more meat, they can also be used for meat.
    4. Saanen

    Saanen is the biggest dairy breed. Males can grow to be over 200 pounds. They can have 1 gallon of milk every day. This milk will generally contain 2.5 – 3% of fat. These goats can be used as pets and used for meat production as well.
    These goats are primarily domesticated.
    5. Toggenburg

    Photo by Teunie
    This is one of the oldest goat breeds known, first seen in the 1600s. Toggenburg goats have a straight face, full beards, and they are generally anywhere from light brown to dark brown with white markings. Flaps of skin on the neck are also quite common with this breed.
    Toggenburg goats produce milk that has 3.3% of fat, which is relatively low. However, the goat breeds well, which keeps it producing regularly. This breed is particularly hardy, making it ideal to breed with meat producing goat breeds.
    6. Oberhasli

    Photo by Jean
    Oberhasli goats produce less creamy milk with 3.6% fat, and the milk can’t be produced all year round. However, they can produce .5 – 1.5 gallons of milk a day. The milk is also very sweet.
    They come from Switzerland. They are also quite small, so they are ideal for farmers in urban settings or with limited space. These goats have sweet personalities, but they have the power to cause some damage. For this reason, many times the horns are removed at an early age.
    7. Nigerian Dwarf

    Photo by Trisha Shears
    These goats are great for producing your own milk at home. These goats are about half the size of average goats. They only produce a couple of pints of milk a day, but the milk that they produce is 6.1% butterfat. This is extremely rich and desirable.
    The Nigerian Dwarf goat originated in Africa. They come in a multitude of colors and usually don’t grow to be more than 23 inches. Many kids of this breed have horns removed.
    This breed is also extremely friendly and can be petted. They can even be trained to walk on a leash like a dog.
    One of the things that make Nigerian Dwarf goats such good milk producers is that they are prolific breeders.
    8. Sable

    Sable goats are an adaptation of the Saanen. The milk they produce is usually between 3 – 4% fat. The average weight for a Sable goat is 145 pounds. Girls will typically be 30 inches, and males will typically be 32 inches.
    Sable goats have large ears, and they have short, thin hair. Some variations have dark coloring that can result in unusual patterns, which is one reason many people enjoy the breed. The dark coloring comes from recessive genes. If the coloring is lighter, the goat would be a Saanen.
    9. Guernsey

    Photo by Rebecca Siegel
    The Guernsey goats are sometimes called olden Guernsey. As the name suggests, the goat is known for its gorgeous golden coloring.
    The Guernsey goat breed is the smallest of medium-sized dairy goats. They generally produce 3.16 kg of milk that is 3.72% fat. It is not legal to import Golden Guernsey goats into the United States.
    Goat Breeds for Meat
    While many Americans might not consider goat meat a popular meat, it is a ready source of nutrition in most places across the world.
    Goat meat is relatively healthy with almost as few calories as chicken. It can get dry if you don’t know how to cook it properly, but goat can make a scrumptious and nutritious dinner.
    Here are popular goat breeds used for meat production.
    1. Spanish

    Photo by Joe Mabel
    As the name suggests, the Spanish goat originally comes from Spain. They were later brought to Mexico and, later, the United States.
    Spanish goats are made for travel and can handle most climates. They are also relatively low maintenance. Another great quality, especially because it is a breed raised for meat, they can breed outside of the normal breeding season. Spanish goats were recently used for producing meat in the 1980s. These goats are also called wood goats, brush goats, briar goats, hill goats, and scrub goats.
    2. Boer

    Photo by Steven Walling
    Boer males can grow to be 300 pounds. Because of this large size, they are one of the most popular breeds for meat production. Other advantages are that they are resistant to disease and reproduce often.
    Australia is the top exporter of goat meat, and they use Boer goats to do this. While they are popular in Australia, they originally derive from South Africa in the early 1900s.
    3. Rangeland

    Photo by Australian Buchers’ Guild
    90% of goat meat in the industry comes from Rangeland goats. These goats primarily live in and were bred in Australia. Breeders look for goats that are tall, wide, and with short hair.
    Rangeland goats can live in dry areas, they still reproduce well in dry conditions, they are low maintenance, and they are great goats to mate with other goats. Boers are the most common goat bred for meat along with Rangeland goats.
    4. Kalahari
    goat breeds

    Photo by Dikkes
    The Kalahari, also known as the Kalahari Red, is a beautiful animal that mostly lives in South Africa. Living here, the animal has been bred to withstand hot temperatures and dry weather.
    The most favorable attribute of the Kalahari goat meat is that it is more tender than other breeds. The meat is also rather lean.
    These goats are good to breed because they are durable. They have also been bred to be immune to common diseases and parasites in the area. They breed throughout the year and generally birth three kids every two years.
    As the name suggests, the Kalahari Red is commonly a reddish/brown color. This color is especially useful for hiding in its surroundings.
    The Kalahari Red is tall and long. In order to make them meatier, they can be bred with larger breeds.
    5. Kiko

    This is a new breed created as recently as the 1980s in New Zealand. They were bred specifically to create an adaptable meat goat. This was done by breeding feral goats with Anglo-Nubian goats, Saanen goats, and Toggenburg goats. These goats are low maintenance and can survive most conditions.
    Positive characteristics of the Kiko goat include weighing more, good mothering skills, better milk production, lean meat, and good hooves.
    6. Nubian
    goat breeds

    Photo by TTaylor
    Nubian is a dual-purpose goat breed; they’re great for milk and meat production. Males can weigh up to 175 pounds. Because of the large stature of these goats, they are often used for meat. Sometimes, they will specifically be mated with Boers to make even larger goats for meat.
    7. Myotonic
    myotonic goat breeds

    Myotonic goats, also known as fainting goats, are known for their unusual reaction when the goat is scared or excited: freezing for a couple second and “fainting”. The hereditary condition is called Myotonia Congenita, which causes the voluntary muscles to contract for 15-20 seconds and makes them fall if they’re off balance. But unlike the name, they are fully conscious and not actually fainting.
    This goat is slowly not being used for meat production anymore because it was labeled “threatened” by The Livestock Conservancy (although the breed is now recovering). However, they used to primarily be used for goat meat.
    The Myotonic goat can grow to about 25 inches tall and weigh 174 pounds. This is one of the smaller breeds of meat goats. They also have distinct eyes that pop out of their head.
    While the “fainting” condition is not passed on to cross breeds because it is recessive, purebred Myotonics are not generally crossed with other breeds because the crosses lost their most desirable traits: friendliness, affection, and easiness to manage.
    8. Black Bengal
    black bengal goat breeds

    25 million Black Bengal goats can be found in Bangladesh. A rather poor nation, people with Black Bengals find a way to support themselves with its milk and meat. Goats are relatively easy to care for, house, and feed, so it’s a good option for the people. If you have a safe place by a food source, they can even feed on natural sources.
    The goats are good breeders and can give birth to 2 – 3 kids twice a year. Black Bengals start reproducing at about 15 months old.
    With Bangladesh being a less affluent country, the farmers use everything that they can from the goat. They sell the milk, the coat, and, most importantly, the meat. The goat can produce 11 kg of meat at a time. Their coat can weigh 20 kg. Meat and coat are the most important products from this animal, as it does not produce milk well.
    As the name suggests, the goat is usually dark in color. The body is lean, and these goats are short. They have ears on the top of their heads and have small to medium horns.
    These goats can also be found in West Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.
    9. Verata
    verata goat breeds

    The Verata goat is known primarily for its unique, twisted horns. They are found mostly in Vera, Spain. There are about 17,000 Verata goats in Spain today. Like most breeds produced for meat, they are quite durable and strong. They can survive in all climates. They also are easy for farmers to manage. They can find food sourced instinctively and adapt well.
    These goats are on the small side and reach about 7- centimeters tall and weigh 70 kilograms. They are dark in color (black or brown), and even 40% of the does have beards.
    Under proper conditions, the Verata goat can breed prolifically. A farmer can expect three kids every two years. When this does happen, a farmer can expect the goat to produce milk for 175 days and produce about 150 liters. When used for meat, kids will be ready at around 45 days old.
    Goats are not only adorable and typically friendly animals, but they are also tasty and healthy.
    The milk is easier for digestion, and the meat is lean. Goat produces a unique flavor as well, resulting in special tasting milk and additional products.
    There are numerous breeds of goats. The dairy goats generally produce large amounts of milk throughout the entire year. They also generally have high-fat content to make thicker products.
    Goats made for meat production are bred to be large and reproduce often. The larger the goat, the more meat it will yield. The more goats bred for meat, the more meat the farmer will produce as well.
    Knowing the proper breed of goat for the job is essential.
    Some goats are better for different goals. If you are debating what type of goats that you want on your farm, you should now have a good starting point!

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #10 on: January 07, 2022, 12:16:18 PM »
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  • 11 Best Sheep Breeds for Meat Production
    March 14, 2019 by Kim Irvine
    Table of Contents [show]


    The Suffolk sheep breed have been around for a while now and they are a large, sturdy breed with a long body, black faces and legs.
    They are quiet docile breed that can be used as a dual-purpose sheep breed for both their meat and wool.
    They have an excellent meat quality with lambs maturing early and market ready by 9 to 12 weeks. The lambs average weights at 42 days old is around 15 kgs and about 53 kgs at 100 days old. The meat has a superb flavor with one of the highest proportion of lean meat to fat. Making the meat lean and it has a fine grain and good color. Read More…
    The Texel is a strong hardy sheep with a sturdy robust build. They are heavily muscled, and the lambs grow relatively fast. They are today quite a popular meat sheep breed in a lot of countries throughout the world including America, Australia, New Zealand and countries in Europe.
    The Texel is very popular for its high-quality meat it produces. They have a high dress out percentage with excellent meat to bone ratio. The have lest waste with a succulent well textured meat that has a unique full flavor of its own. The meat is in demand by butchers and consumers alike as the meat is lean and does not leave a fatty taste in the mouth. It also tends to take less time to cook the meat. Lambs can weigh up to 44 kgs at 24 weeks old. Read More…
    The Dorper Sheep is a hardy resilient South African breed of sheep that can withstand various harsh climates, environments and intensive operations.
    They are used for both lamb and mutton. Their lambs have a high growth rate and reach weights of up to 36 kgs in 3 to 4 months. They have a premium quality of meat with a good meat to bone ratio and low percentage of waste. Read More…
    The Southdown sheep is a sheep that originates from the United Kingdom and it is medium sized sheep breed that has a long compact body in relation to the length of their medium length legs.
    They are one of the oldest breeds of “down” sheep from the United Kingdom and are prized for their meat but also produce a decent quality and quantity of wool.
    The sheep dress out well and produce a high quality with an excellent carcass. Their meat is flavorsome, rich in color, succulent and tender. Read More….
    Border Leicester
    The Border Leicester Sheep is a breed that originated in Britain a couple of centuries ago. They are a robust, hardy breed with a very distinctive face and ears that stand up long on straight from their head.
    They have a body full of good wool, good meat to bone ratio and a docile, even-tempered nature that make them really easy to handle. They love to graze and forage which also makes them easy to maintain.
    They are sought after for their fast maturing lambs and premium quality, succulently flavorful meat production. The lambs can reach up to 49 kgs by 4.5 months of age making them excellent for the production of premium quality lamb. Read More…
    The Corriedale Sheep breed is one of the oldest of the crossbred sheep breeds and originated from New Zealand. It is one of the most popular sheep breeds in quite a few countries around the world including America.
    It is a hardy, adaptive, good lamber, the ewes are great mothers and they have a premium grade meat and top-quality wool.
    The Corriedale Sheep breed is a meat producing sheep bred specifically developed and selectively bred to produce a high-quality meat. The lambs are fast growers with high quality, large carcasses and reach their ideal slaughter weight at around 10 months.
    Barbados Black Belly
    The Barbados Black Belly sheep breed is a gentle docile breed that is active and alert. They are one of the best foragers and love to do foliage management. They produce a high-quality mild-flavored meat that is said to be very tender. Read More…
    The Shetland Sheep originate from the Shetland Islands in Scotland. They are very hardy small breed of sheep that have developed the ability to survive harsh conditions. They are highly adaptive, prolific and offer soft succulent meat and a myriad of colorful fine quality wool.
    The Shetland sheep breed are historically known for producing delicious mutton of a high quality and outstanding flavor. They meat has a fine texture and far leaner than other breeds as the sheep tends to not store their fat solely around their muscle but rather more around their organs. The lamb of a Shetland just under one year of age is around 12 to 17 kg and has a delicate flavor that can be used for fast preparation as it does not need to have much added flavors or spices. The Hogget, which are aged at around 1 to 2 years of age get weights of between 16 to 20 kgs and the Hogget tends to be able to be cooked as you would the lamb only it tends to be a lot more flavorsome. Read More…
    The Teeswater sheep breed is a hardy sheep breed that can withstand most climatic and environmental conditions. They have a long life and the ewes can produce lambs for up to 10 to 12 years of age.
    The Teeswater has a lean meat with a good meat to bone ratio and light bone. Purebred lambs can reach a weight of 19.9 kgs at 8 weeks old. The lambs can also reach a weight of up to 30 kgs without excess fat. Read More…
    North Country Cheviot
    The North Country Cheviot sheep is a Cheviot breed of sheep that originated from Scotland in around 1791. They are a very striking looking sheep that are hardy and very alert. They are known for the clean smooth haired white faces and legs. They are bred in Scotland but are found in most parts of the United Kingdom as well as Ireland.
    The Cheviot sheep breed is generally the lamb or sheep meat choice of most mothers. The meat has more meat and less fat ratio thereby giving less weight percentage. The lambs mature fast and tend to have a plump meaty carcass with delicately trimmed flesh with a great flavor and just enough fat on the meat to keep it succulent. The lambs yield a carcass weight of around 20 kgs between the age of 90 to 120 days old. Read More…
    Wiltshire Horn
    It is a large breed of sheep that originates from Wiltshire in the South of England and is mainly bred for its outstanding meat quality. They are known for the high-quality meat production. Lambs can grow to their required weight without putting on any excess fat and therefor eliminating wastage. They produce a full-flavored succulent meat. Read More…

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline Viva Cristo Rey

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #11 on: January 07, 2022, 12:17:29 PM »
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  • Orpington Chickens

    Orpington (Buff Orpington)
    Updated on 12/09/20

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    Buff Orpington

    The Spruce / Steven Merkel
    The Orpington is a dual-purpose chicken breed, raised for both eggs and meat. Developed in Orpington, Kent, England, it was bred specifically to produce superior eggs while still maintaining good meat quality. Several different color variations exist, including the common buff Orpington, and there are both full-sized and bantam varieties available.
    The Orpington chicken is a good all-purpose utility chicken, providing both eggs and meat, but it is frequently bred for show. Breeding for show is so common that the egg production of this chicken has fallen slightly over the years as breeders emphasize appearance overproduction. The Orpington is a friendly breed that also makes a good outdoor pet for families, schools, or clubs.


    Origins and History 
    The Orpington was first bred by William Cook in 1866 by crossing Minorca, Lanshan, and Plymouth Rock breeds to produce a hybrid. Initially, Cook bred a blackbird aimed at hiding the grim of air polluted by London factories, but other colors soon proliferated. Today, the buff color is the most common.
    The bantam version of the Orpington was developed in Germany in the early 20th century.
    Mature Orpingtons are large, heavy birds, weighing in at 7 to 8 pounds. Bantams range from 3 to 3 1/2 pounds.
    Orpingtons are big, gentle birds that respond well to attention. They are non-aggressive and enjoy handling, making them a good bird for families. Because they are passive birds, they do not do well in mixed flocks that include aggressive breeds, such as the Rhode Island Reds. Orpingtons are relatively quiet birds that do well in city or suburban environments. They are great with kids, making them a good choice for 4-H projects or schools.
    Orpingtons do not mind confinement and respond well to the transportation and handling that goes with competitive showing.
    Hens brood easily and make good mothers. A small flock of Orpingtons can easily be maintained over a long period. Roosters of the species are unusually gentle.
    Colors and Markings 
    The Orpington has a heavy, broad body with a low stance. The broad, smooth feathers are fluffy, and the back is short and curvy. There are several common color varieties, including buff, black, blue, and white. Buff is the most common color variation; other colors may be hard to find.
    The beak, feet, and legs are pinkish-white in color, and the eyes are reddish-brown. The wattle, comb, and earlobes are red. The comb generally has five points.
    side profile of a Buff Orpington

    The Spruce / Steven Merkel
    Buff Orpington side profile

    Raising the Orpington 
    Orpingtons are a heritage breed—one that existed before modern industrial meat and egg production. Many small farmers find heritage breeds to be hardier and healthier than their industrial, hybrid counterparts, and they tend to exhibit more classic chicken behaviors such as foraging, dust bathing, parenting their young, and sometimes going broody.
    Orpingtons are also very cold-hardy and lay well through frigid winters and dark, short days. They are large birds with thick feathering that helps keep them warm and toasty through the winter months. They are good birds for cold climates but can also tolerate heat if they are given shade during the hottest part of the day.
    Eggs and Meat 
    An Orpington hen lays 200 to 280 large brown eggs per year. If raised for meat, the birds are ready for the table after about 22 weeks.
    Common Health Issues 
    Orpingtons thrive in the cold, but very warm temperatures can kill them unless they have shade and good ventilation. Orpingtons have dense feathers that can collect lice and mites—regular application of poultry dust can keep pests in check.
    Large birds, Orpingtons can be prone to obesity unless they get ample exercise.
    More Chicken Breeds 
    If you find the Orpington chicken interesting, also consider these other chicken breeds:
    Or consider any of the other chicken breeds commonly raised.

    • Plymouth rock, New Hampshire red and Ameracauna chickens walking in foliage

      Which Breed of Chicken Is Best for Your Farm or Backyard Flock?

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      Want to Raise Your Own Chickens? What to Know About Broody Hens

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      The Beginner's Guide to Choosing Chicken Breeds

    • chickens feeding

      What Should I Feed My Chickens?

    To live with the Saints in Heaven is all bliss and glory....To live with the saints on Earth is just another story!  (unknown)

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
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  • Top 15 Sheep Breeds for Wool

    Sherry grew up watching her uncle raise turtles, fish, goats, and chickens in his backyard. She brought home a goat last year.

    Humans first wore clothes 170,000 years ago but adornment with woven wool garments began only around 4000 BC. Although there are more than 200 breeds of sheep in the world today, not all produce wool ideally suitable for knitting. Some sheep breeds have been developed and selected for wool by breeders, spinners and fibre artists.
    To choose an ideal breed for wool production, one has to look for raw wool characteristics that contribute to the quality and value of wool. These include fibre diameter, fibre curvature, staple strength, lack of pigmented fibre, staple length, spinning fineness and clean fleece yield. While the influence of these traits differs, they all contribute to an entire fleece’s attributes.
    15 Best Sheep Breeds for Wool
    These sheep breeds are known for producing the highest quality and quantity of wool and demanding the least maintenance.
    1. Merino
    The ancestors of pretty much all fine wool breeds produce the finest and most valuable type of wool. Merino sheep have wool of fineness 17-22 microns. Some of these may also be as thin as 12 microns which is nearly the size of cobwebs. The wool is very soft and has excellent felting properties.
    When a yarn label says Merino, the fibre could be from one of several strains of Merino sheep. The most popular of those include Peppin, Boroola, Saxon and Delaine. Among them, the Saxon produces the finest and most highly-priced wool fibre.
    The clean fleece yield can be low compared to other breeds because of the high amount of grease content.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Fineness, softness, felting properties
    • Suitable for: Babywear, next-to-skin fabrics
    Merino of New Zealand

    Merino of New Zealand

    © Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0

    2. Debouillet
    Debouillet is a result of a cross between Delaine-Merinos and Rambouillets. They are hardy and well adapted to varied conditions in the western US. The fleece is extremely soft, fine and has well-defined crimp and drape. Staple length is slightly better than the Merino and Rambouillets.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, felting property
    • Suitable for: Babywear, next-to-skin fabrics, felt
    Debouillet sheep

    Debouillet sheep

    Courtesy of Marathon Basin Wool Mill in Texas

    3. Rambouillet
    Rambouillet is a large-bodied fine wool sheep breed that is raised for meat as well. The fleece has a fineness of 19-23 microns. Crimp is finer and more even than that of a Merino’s. The crimp gives excellent loft and elasticity to the fibre. Overall it is one of the best wool sheep for felting.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, felting property
    • Suitable for: Babywear, next-to-skin wear, blend with exotic fibres
    Rambouillet sheep

    Rambouillet sheep

    With Permission via Mlberry Fiber Studio

    4. Cormo
    The Cormo originated from Tasmania, Australia. It is a fertile breed that can stand wet and cold conditions better than Merino. The fleece is clean, white and resultant heavy fleece weight.
    The fibre diameter is quite uniform from head to tail. It is extremely soft, warm; has average lustre for fine wool and a perfect balance of loft and elasticity. The downside to wool from Cormo is the short length of staple and high crimp that makes it troublesome for the spinners to maintain even tension. However, despite this, you will see that the finished fabric from Cormo is flawless.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, excellent felting property
    • Suitable for: Fashion fabrics
    Cormo sheep

    Cormo sheep

    Courtesy of Apple Rose Farm

    5. Comeback
    “Comeback” refers to breeding back towards the Merino. The name is to describe any fleece that is at least 70 percent Merino. Comeback is a type of Australian sheep rather than a separate breed. These sheep were developed by crossing Merino with British longwool. Comeback produces fine, soft, heavy fleece with an outstanding felting quality.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, loft, felting property
    • Suitable for: Woolen and worsted fabrics, hand knitting yarns, felts
    6. Bond
    The outstanding quality wool of Bond is a result of the mix of traits of its ancestors, Merino and Lincoln. Bond grows soft and heavy fleece of diameter 23-28 microns. The staples are typically the longest among the fine wools.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Trait: Staple length, lustre
    • Suitable for: Blankets, knitting wools
    Australian Bond sheep

    Australian Bond sheep

    7. Polwarth
    Polwarth, a type of Comeback is a dual-purpose breed valued for fibre and meat. It is a descendant of Lincoln and Merino that were bred to produce a dual-purpose breed with an emphasis on wool production. It is an ideal wool breed for damp climates where Merinos do not do so well.
    The fibre is white, soft and has average fineness with low lustre. The staple length is reasonably good in all individuals of Polwarth. Like Polwarth, there is another comeback called Zenith whose fibre is nearly as nice as Polwarth but with little less lustre.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, felting property
    • Suitable for: Babywear, worsted fabric, knitting yarns


    Courtesy of Rewa Rewa Station

    8. Targhee
    The large dual-purpose breed produces dense fibre of uniform fineness ranging between 21-25 microns. The Targhee is a commercial breed for meat production and high-quality wool. The staples have a low lustre and a pretty decent length.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, felting property
    • Suitable for: Next-to-skin fabrics (woven and knitted)
    Targhee sheep

    Targhee sheep

    By Yathin sk - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

    9. Teeswater
    Teeswater is an excellent commercial wool breed considering its staple length, staple strength and lustre. It is widely used for both meat and wool production. Usually, hand knitters add a bit of Teeswater to another yarn for strength and sheen. Fibre from younger individuals is softer and silkier and fibre from older ones is more rough and tough.

    • Wool type: Longwool
    • Traits: Luster, staple length
    • Suitable for: Outerwear, rugs
    Teeswater sheep

    Teeswater sheep

    10. Finnish Landrace
    Finnish Landrace also popularly known as Finn or Finnsheep grows fibre of just perfect length and high, fine crimp. It is a fertile and hardy breed that adapts to harsh climate conditions. The fibre is of medium fineness (24-31 microns). Compared to other medium wool sheep, Finn produces fibre with softness and loft. Because of a low amount of lanolin, the fleece grows relatively clean on the animal.

    • Wool type: Mediumwool
    • Traits: Softness, elasticity, lustre, felting property
    • Suitable for: Outerwear, blankets, for blending
    Finnsheep with Finn-Texel quintuplets

    Finnsheep with Finn-Texel quintuplets

    11. Wensleydale
    Wensleydale is a large-sized, polled longwool sheep with distinctive blue-grey faces. The wool is one of the finest and lustrous of all longwools. The staple length is also quite excellent making it one of the most profitable wool breed out there.

    • Wool type: Longwool
    • Traits: Luster, staple length
    • Suitable for: Outerwear, rugs, mixed with cloth and upholstery fabric, for blending
    Wensleydale sheep

    Wensleydale sheep

    © Flickr CC BY 2.0

    12. Romney
    Romney is a hardy dual-purpose breed used for meat and fibre. The breed is so popular that it is found in nearly all the countries growing sheep.
    The fibre is uniform, semi-lustrous and has more crimp than most longwool sheep. It has a diameter of 32-39 microns and is of rough grade, unsuitable for garments directly in contact with skin. The yarn has a certain quality which gives it an earthy look and feel.

    • Wool type: Longwool
    • Traits: Elasticity, lustre
    • Suitable for: Outerwear, baskets, rugs, carpets

    Flickr © Linda N. CC BY 2.0

    13. Borderdale
    The Borderdale is a product of a cross between Border Leicester and Corriedale. It is a medium to large-sized, dual-purpose breed used for fibre and meat.
    The fleece of a Borderdale is heavy, soft and relatively lustrous for a longwool. The diameter of the fibre is around 30-35 microns.

    • Wool type: Longwool
    • Traits: Felting quality, softness, lustre
    • Suitable for: Heavyweight apparel


    14. Bluefaced Leicester
    The sheep that are not blue-faced at all produce fibre of fineness 24-28 microns. The Leicester fibre has just the right amount of length, crimp with small curls and a silky yet lustrous feel with delicate drape. Moreover, fibre can be dyed effortlessly.

    • Wool type: Longwool
    • Traits: Softness, lustre
    • Suitable for: Strong fabrics, next-to-skin wear, outerwear

    By Magic Foundry - Ewes and Lambs in the Garden, CC BY 2.0

    15. Corriedale
    The Corriedale is dual-purpose meat and wool sheep that has come from crossing Longwool rams with Merino ewes. It is a hardy sheep adapted to a wide range of conditions. The fleece is soft, lustrous and nicely crimped.

    • Wool type: Fine wool
    • Traits: Luster, felting property
    • Suitable for: Worsted fabric, legwear, blankets
    Corriedale sheep

    Corriedale sheep

    © Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0

    This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
    © 2021 Sherry Haynes
    Chitrangada Sharan from New Delhi, India on January 13, 2021:
    Excellent and informative article!
    I had no idea about the different sheep breeds. You have done good research and I learnt a lot from your well written and illustrated article.
    Thank you for sharing!
    Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on January 12, 2021:
    This is a very informative article. Thank you for sharing so many details about wool, Sherry. I’ve never heard of most of the sheep breeds that you’ve mentioned. I’m glad I’ve learned about them.

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline SeanJohnson

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
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  • Best Chicken Breeds for Eggs, Meat and Dual Purpose Varieties with Photos

    An information guide to good egg laying chicken breeds available with images for your homestead and backyard. See which of the best laying hens and chickens are right for you.
    3 MAIN TYPES OF CHICKENS: Hybrids, Pure-Breeds and Bantams
    There are so many types of laying chickens out there that it is understandably overwhelming when you first set out to get some backyard chickens as egg layers. However, they can be broken down into 3 simple types:
    1) Hybrid Chickens - The majority of commercial birds are of hybrid stock. These being a cross between a number of different chicken breeds. They are hardy and less susceptible to diseases and some of the best egg laying chicken breeds can be found in this type of fowl.
    2) Pure Breeds - Many of these are of old heritage chicken breeds are bred down through generations. Heritage chicken breeds are ideal if you are going to exhibit your birds. They are also ideal if you want to ensure the future of pure bred birds that have been bred for certain qualities that you will enjoy, whether it be for egg-laying or for meat production.
    3) There is another type of chicken - Bantam Chickens which are in a class on their own, and ideal to keep when you don't have a lot of space as they are much smaller than the ones mentioned above. However, besides true bantams, there are also many large breeds of chickens which have been bred to become bantam chickens in size.
    Of these hybrid and pure bred chickens,  there are those that are good as egg layers, those that are good table birds for meat production, those that are just pretty to look at,  and those that are dual-purpose; good for both eggs and meat.
    3 Classes of Chicken Breeds
    What makes up hybrids, pure breeds and bantams are 3 main classes of chickens:
    • American Class of Chickens
    • Asiatic Class of Chickens
    • Mediterranean Class of Chickens
    American Class
    The main American chicken breeds are:

    Rhode Island Reds are excellent egg-layers and Plymouth Rocks lay large, brown eggs.

    However, besides these, there are also the Javas and the American Dominiques. Both these breeds are very old and are America's oldest breeds of chickens.

    The Java chickens are similar to the Plymouth Rocks in size, shape and traits. The American Dominiques are the oldest American breed and it was from this breed that the Plymouth Rock originated.
    Asiatic Class
    The main Asiatic breeds are large, solid birds, quiet birds that make very good chickens for pets because of their docile natures. However, primarily the Asiatic birds, because of their large size are reared as meat chickens:
    • Brahmas
    • Cochins
    • Langshams
    Brahmas are the largest of the breeds, docile birds that don't wander off, and their weight means that they don't fly too far. Brahmas are excellent broilers and also lay a large number of large, brown eggs.

    Cochins have been bred for their size and there are several varieties such as the Buff Cochin, Partridge Cochin, Black Cochin and White Cochin. They are not great egg layers.

    , both black and white were introduced into America, and again are large, docile birds bred for their meat.

    Mediterranean Class
    The Leghorns are the best breed from the Mediterranean class for eggs, and in fact, the best layers around at the moment. Other than the Leghorns there are other types:

    • Black and White Minorcas
    • Andalusians
    • Anconas
    • Whitefaced Black Spanish
    Chicken Breeds for Meat
    If you are only interested in breeds of chicken for eating then you should be looking at:
    • Brahmas
    • Jersey Giants
    • Langshams
    • Cochins
    However, this list is not limited to these meat breeds as you will see below. But these are just some of the more popular chicken breeds for meat.
    Here is a list of both hybrid meat chickens and old breed and crossed meat chickens
    Modern Hybrid Meat Chickens
    * White Feathered Cobb
    * Shaver Starbro
    * Marshall
    * Arbor Acre broiler
    * Red Feathered Shaver Redbro
    * ISA 657 Red-feathered broiler

    Old Breeds and Crosses
    * Whited feathered White Sussex
    * White Cornish
    * Red feathered Dorking
    * Indian Game
    * Rhode Island Red x Light Sussex
    * Light Sussex x Indian Game (or vice versa)
    * Plymouth Rock
    Chicken Breeds for Eggs
    If you are only interested in keeping chickens for eggs, then you should be looking at the following chicken breeds:
    • Leghorns
    • Spanish
    • Minorcas
    • Anconas
    • Andulusians
    Chicken Breeds for Meat and Eggs
    Finally, if you want to keep chickens for both meat and eggs then you should be looking at keeping:

    • Rhode Island Reds
    • Plymouth Rocks
    • Orpingtons
    • Wyandottes
    My Opinion on the Best Chicken Breeds for Eggs
    As far as I am concerned, the best chicken laying breeds are by far the White Leghorns , the Plymouth Rocks, and the Rhode Island Reds.
    In the past I have kept Rhode Island Reds crossed with Light Sussex and they are excellent layers too  producing eggs 6 days out of 7 during the laying season.
    They did go off the boil for a while when a lot of them were broody, but eventually they sorted themselves out and went back to laying eggs once again. However, this is one disadvantage of Rhode Island Reds crossed with Light Sussex - they do tend to go broody more than other laying hens.
    If you want to your hens to raise their own chicks, then this chicken breed would be the perfect mother. However, if you are just keeping laying hens for eggs, then you may want to look at Leghorns crossed with Rhode Island Reds, or pure Leghorns.
    If you are looking for good laying hens in general, trying to decide on the best chicken breed for you. There are plenty to choose from, as you will see from the list below, and although pure bred chickens, in the main, are pretty to look at, mixed-breeds are more hardy, and often very good layers for the backyard chicken keeper.
    However, having said all that, not all chicken breeds lay at the same time throughout the year and it is better to keep two breeds that will give you a good supply all year round.
    Many chicken keepers will keep Leghorns as their main flock, but then they will also keep American breeds of chicken as well. This is because American chicken breeds will often lay throughout the winter, while the Leghorns won't.  During the summer, the Leghorns are better layers than the American breeds.
    Plymouth Rocks, although good layers, only out produce Leghorns in March. However, because they are hardy birds they lay well during winter. The Wyandottes produce more eggs during December, January, September, and October.
    The Rhode Island Reds lay well in January through to April, but during November, May, June, July, and August, the Leghorns usually outlay all their competitors.
    Finally, on a personal level, I thought I would mention ISA Browns. They are not a chicken breed, but rather a hybrid chicken. They are excellent chicken layers of brown eggs that are often the choice of chicken used by egg farms.
    I have just acquired 2 of late, and are impressed with their performance. They are said to lay 300 eggs a year. The only downside is, that because the ISA Brown is such an egg-laying machine, they have a very short lifespan. However, I am hoping to beat this by keeping up their protein levels. We shall see. I also keep Plymouth Barred Rocks as they are an excellent dual purpose bird that do well in cold weather. And we also have Columbian Rocks.
    Basically, if you want to keep chickens for eggs, you really have to keep a number of different chicken breeds that will produce eggs for you over the year, because you will find that when one type is not laying as well, the other varieties are.
    So you can see that keeping a number of different chicken breeds for eggs would make far more sense, than just having one type of chicken.
    However, I do have to add, that if you don't get your hens to lay by September or October after they have moulted, they probably won't lay again until the following spring.
    As a result you will find that some breeders force their hens into moulting by reducing the grain drastically from mid-July through to mid-August, giving the hens only enough grain to keep them alive. After that, they are then given lots of grain and lots of sunflower seeds.
    This seems to result in a total loss of feathers almost all at once. However, a month later, by mid-September the hens are through their moulting and laying again.
    ISA Brown and Barred Rock Chickens
    Here is one of my ISA Brown hens, along with my Plymouth Barred Rocks.
    My personal pick for good laying hens is any of the following 4 chicken breeds that are cross-bred with each other:
    • White Leghorns
    • Rhode Island Reds
    • Light Sussex
    • White Wyandottes
    Rhode Island Reds, crossed with White Wyandottes makes another excellent cross-breed for chickens.
    Cross-Breeding Chickens for Eggs and Sex-Linking
    If you are going to go into cross-breeding chickens, you need to know what the off-spring will look like.
    If you mate a Rhode Island cockerel with a Light Sussex hen the male chicks will be white in color, like the hen, and the female chicks will be reddish brown, like the father. This is called "sex-linking" in chickens and makes identifying the sexes easier.
    If you mate a Rhode Island cockerel with a White Wyandotte hen, you will again get the same result where the female chicks are reddish brown, and the male chicks are white. The offspring of this mix, makes better layers than those crossed with a Light Sussex.
    You will not be able to sex-link chicks if you have a light colored cock, such as a White Leghorn and mate it with a Rhode Island hen, for example.
    However, sex-linking can be done with mixed-bred chicks in a following generation, if you mated a Rhode Island Red cockerel with a hybrid that was the result of a mating of a Rhode Island Red cockerel with a White Leghorn, for example.
    Chicken Breeds that Lay Brown Eggs
    Despite the fact that there is no nutritional difference in both brown and white eggs, many people want chickens that lay brown eggs.
    There are many hybrid breeds as well as pure breeds or first crosses that lay brown eggs, and I thought I would list them here for you, as on overview.
    Hybrid Layers of Brown Eggs
    * ISA Brown
    * Hisex Brown
    * Shaver Brown
    * Hy-Line Brown
    * Babcock Brown
    * Ross Brown
    * Hubbard Golden Comet
    Pure Breed Chicken Layers of Brown Eggs
    * Maran
    * Rhode Island Red
    * Barred Plymouth Rock
    * Black Rock
    * Rhode Island Red x Light Sussex
    * Dorset
    * Wellsummer
                                              6 eggs to denote quantity of egg laying


    These are probably the best laying chickens around, besides the Rhode Island Breeds.

    They are prolific egg layers of white eggs. A small, spritely, noisy bird with great style, that like to move about. Leghorns are good foragers and can often glean much of their diet from ranging over fields and barnyards. Leghorns are capable of considerable flight and often roost in trees if given the opportunity. Leghorns lay more than 300 eggs a year.

    leghorn chicken breed
    Very flighty
    Good foragers
     Rarely Broody


    An Australian bird developed from the Orpington chicken. Black feathers with a green sheen. Can lay from as early as 5 months. Australorps lays about 300 eggs a year, so another good layer for chicken eggs.

    Australorp Chicken
    Dual Purpose
    Good Choice for Novice Breeder


    Originally from England. This is a heavy set bird and because of its size is not flighty. Orpingtons are lovely, docile birds and therefore make excellent chickens as pets as well as a breed for the novice chicken keeper. Orpingtons lay 220 - 240 eggs a year, making it another good breed for egg layers.
    orpington chickens
    Ideal for the novice


    The Sussex is an attractive little bird and makes a good all-round farm fowl. It is a good layer of cream eggs. 260-280 eggs per year. So not a bad egg layer.

    light sussex chicken breeds
    Best Dual Purpose Bird
    Good Foragers
    Tend to go Broody


    The Rhode Island Red Chickens are prolific egg layers of medium brown eggs. Relatively hardy, they are probably the best egg layers of the dual purpose breeds. Reds handle marginal diets and poor housing conditions better than other breeds and still continue to produce eggs. 200-250 eggs a year.

    Rhode Island Red
    Dual Purpose Bird
    Good Choice for Novice Breeder

                                          4 eggs to denote quantity of egg laying


    Italian breed of chicken, originating from the town Ancona. Black with white-tipped feathers. Laying chickens of large white eggs; 220 - 240 a year.

    ancona chicken breed

    Very flighty


    Originally from Holland, despite its name. Active and flighty chickens that are considered good laying hens, laying 200 - 220 small white eggs every year. Several varieties including Silver Spangled Hamburgs, Golden Spangled Hamburgs, Gold- Pencilled and Silver-Pencilled.

    Very flighty and need wings clipped


    A striking bird, originally from France. It has a crest, beard and muffs and has 5 toes. 200-220 eggs per year, so making these average laying hens.

    Houdan Chickens
    Exhibition Bird 


    Originally from Spain. This ancient chicken, known to the Romans lays about 220-240 large white eggs every year during productivity. So good laying hens that are hardy and good foragers for their food. The most common color is black, but you get white, buff and blue Minorca chickens too. Large combs and wattles. Developed for the production of very large chalk-white eggs, the Minorca is today principally an exhibition fowl.

    Black Minorca Chickens

    Good Foragers
    Rarely go Broody


    The Araucuna is a South American bird that is rumpless and a  producer  of medium-sized blue/green eggs. Lays 180-200 eggs a year. So good laying chickens and a good layer for those unusually colored eggs. It is the only chicken breed to lay colored eggs of red, blue or green.

    Araucana Chicken
    Dual Purpose
    Good Choice for Novice Breeder


    A quiet and often lazy little bird that lays 180-200 light brown eggs a year. Originally from the town of Barnvelder in Holland, it is the most popular dual purpose chicken in this country. Good chicken for damp and cold, windy climates.


    Good Dual Purpose Bird



    Also known as Cornish chickens. Originally from Cornwall. Not good  egg layers; 160-180 eggs a year. Kept for meat purposes as it has a well muscled body, but also needs substantial amounts of food.

    Indian Game Fowl

    Meat Chicken

    Prone to mite infestations


    The Penedesenca, once close to extinction in the 80s but now only semi-rare. The Penedesenca has white ear lobes but lays deep red-brown eggs with a sheen to them. 160-180 eggs a year.

                          Penedesenca Cockerel

    Gentle if hand-raised.
    Black Penedesenca are Dual Purpose


    An American breed of chicken. Plymouth Rocks are a good general farm chicken. They are docile and easy to handle. They will normally will show broodiness and possess a long, broad back; a moderately deep, full breast and a single comb of moderate size. Because of their size they are not flighty. The best known type is a barred plymouth rock chicken breed, as shown below. The Plymouth rock chickens are average egg layers with 160-180 eggs a year.

    barred rock plymouth rock

    Dual Purpose



    An American breed of chicken. Wyandottes have a well-rounded body and their docile natures make them ideal backyard chickens. They lay 180-200 eggs a year, and are pretty birds to look at. There are a number of types such as black, white, silver laced, gold laced, buff, Columbian and silver-pencilled.

    silver laced wyandottes
    Good Choice for Novice Breeder

    Pictures courtesy of

    Romans 5:20 "But where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."

    -I retract any and all statements I have made that are incongruent with the True Faith, and apologize for ever having made them-

    Offline Meg

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    Re: Perpetual Subsistence Farming and Gardening
    « Reply #14 on: January 07, 2022, 12:29:11 PM »
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  • This thread is a great idea!

    One of the sheep breeds that I would recommend in addition to the ones already listed is the Soay sheep, from the Island of Soay in the Scottish Hebrides. There are just beginning to become more available in the U.S. They are hardy, smaller than typical sheep, and their wool is especially fine. The wool can be plucked in that the sheep naturally shed their coat. They can also be sheared. It's the type I would purchase, if possible.

    Soay Sheep For Sale – Smoky Buttes Ranch

    Soay sheep - Wikipedia

    Soay lamb:

    Soay sheep lamb - Soay sheep - Wikipedia

    As an aside, the inhabitants of the Island of St. Kilda were evacuated about 1930. For centuries, they lived an isolated, communal and sustainable life, until the 18th and 19th century, when tourists began to flock to the island to view them. They were thought to be originally Catholic, but prot ministers were sent to them, which helped lead to their decline. They used the wool from Soay sheep to make most of their clothing.
    "Our society is so abnormal that the normal man never dreams of having the normal occupation of looking after one's own property. When he chooses a trade, he chooses one of the ten thousand trades that involve looking after other people's property."

    ~ G.K. Chesterton, Commonwealth, Oct. 12, 1932.