The first patent for the hydrogenation process was in 1903 by William Norman. The first patent for hydrogenated cottonseed oil was in 1911. This is the same year that Proctor and Gamble came out with Crisco oil. Crisco was acombination of hydrogenated palm and cottonseed oil, mixed with lard and animal fats. People then were not purchasing it, so P&G started giving it away, literally. The patent was purchased by a major food producing company. In 1937, a new patent was filed by a Dr. Ellis working for a major oil company. He improved the process by separating certain fats for commercial use. Since then, additional patents have been filed for different methods of these processes. These patents from 1976 to present can be found at the U.S. Office of Patents and Trademarks on the internet. Prior to 1976, patent searches must be done to find the original patents.
In 1911, Mazola oil, a salad and cooking corn oil was introduced. In 1914, most of the companies removed any remaining animal fats in the oils they were producing and started using vegetable oils completely. Until this time, people were at least getting some essential naturally occurring fatty acids because of the animal fats. After 1914, the population began getting trans-formed essential fatty acids that became trans-fatty acids in their foods by the introduction of hydrogenated oils.
In 1957, margarines began to out sell butter.
During the process of hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are moved to what is called the opposite side of the double bond of the molecular structure of the fatty acid in the oil. Click here to see the molecular change in graph.
This newly formed molecular configuration of the fatty acid, ( a changed carbon molecular structure of the fatty acid which the genetics of the body does not recognize) has been named "trans", meaning "on the other side of." Trans-fatty acids alter the normal transport of minerals and other nutrients across cell membranes. It weakens the protective structure and function of the cell. Hydrogenation gas is fused into the oils using a metal catalyst, aluminum, cobalt, and nickel. Without the metals, the hydrogen could not be fused into the oils. All are toxic metals to the body. This fusion takes place under pressure at temperatures of 248-410 degrees. Another words, the oils are changed molecularly. When you compare this changed essential fatty acid, which has now become a trans- fatty acid, it matches the same molecular structure of Stearic Acid. One of the uses of Stearic Acid is in the making of candles. It makes candles hard. Could this have the same affect on the human body in the form of hardening of arteries? In addition, by hydrogenating oils, more volume is produced. It increases the volume of the oil thus making more available to sell. Final result, more profit. However, its' main purpose is to increase shelf life of products. It is a preservative, and a deadly one.
During the late 1930's and early 1940's, a dramatic increase was seen in the following diseases. First was a disease that looked like diabetes, acted like diabetes, but was not caused by a deficiency of insulin. The medical profession was dumbfounded. All they knew was that a person produced enough insulin, but it was not effective in reducing sugar in the blood. They did not know what caused the insulin to be resistant. The medical establishment named this new disease non-insulin dependent diabetes, type II. The second and third diseases that increased dramatically were heart disease and cancer. This is the period also where new diseases which fell into the auto-immune classifications were being seen for the first time and named. The medical profession also did not know what was causing these new auto-immune diseases. They placed blame on the faulty genetics of the immune system. There is a correlation here. The increase of these new diseases began shortly after the introduction of hydrogenated oils in the food supply.
During 1973 to 1994, there was an increase of 364.3 various cancers to 462.0 various cancers per 100,000 population, a 22% increase. This information is available from the National Institutes of Health. More alarming is that from 1973 to 1992, an increase from 364.3 various cancers to 530.33 cancers per 100,000 population was seen. This was a 31% increase, an additional 9% increase from the previous years.