Author Topic: Anti-fertility vaccines abstract (take notice of last sentence)  (Read 174 times)

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Offline Emile

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  • https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2665354/

    Review
    Vaccine

    . 1989 Apr;7(2):97-101.
    doi: 10.1016/0264-410x(89)90043-1.
    Anti-fertility vaccines
    G P Talwar 1 , R Raghupathy
    Affiliations
    Abstract
    Vaccines are under development for the control of fertility in males and females. This review discusses developments in anti-fertility vaccines at the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India. A single injection procedure for the sterilization or castration of male animals depending on the site at which the injection is given, has passed through field testing and is expected to be on the market in the near future. Vaccines inducing antibodies against the human chorionic gonadotropin have gone through phase I trials with satisfactory results. A vaccine producing a consistently bioeffective antibody response against gonadotropin-releasing hormone is ready for phase I/II clinical trials in patients of carcinoma of prostate after due experimentation in animals and toxicology studies. Research to identify sperm antigens for incorporation into second generation vaccines is in progress.
    PIP: Anti-fertility vaccine research carried out at the National Institute of Immunology in New Delhi, India is summarized. The vaccines react against follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Intratesticular injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in moderate concentrations causes the degeneration of the blood-testes barrier, which finally leads to reversible azoospermia and it is suited for use in animals. Anti-hCG (anti-human chorionic gonadotropin) vaccines include beta-hCG linked to tetanus toxoid /TT (beta-hCG-TT) the alpha-subunit of ovine LH associated with beta-hCG and linked to TT or cholera toxin chain b (CHB/alpha-oLH, beta-hCG-TT/CHB/, the mixture of hCG and oLH, and 37 amino acid carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP) of beta-hCG linked to diphtheria toxoid (DT). The principle of anti-hCG vaccine is to induce antibodies which can bind to hCG and render it biologically inactive. The beta-subunit of hCG has proven efficacious in controlling fertility, and similarly 36 amino acid CTP was effective in baboons. The beta-hCG- TT vaccine evoked the production of anti-hCG antibodies in 61 of 63 women tested. The mixture of beta-hCG and beta-ovine LH conjugated to TT or CHB /formulation M/ and beta-hCG annealed to alpha-ovine LH and conjugated to TT or to CHB (formulation A/ produced improved) immunogenicity. Immunization with GnRH resulted in decreased testicular size, drop of testosterone levels, and marked atrophy of the prostate. Anti-GnRH vaccine would be tried in patients of carcinoma of the prostate. LDH-C4, a sperm-specific mitochondrial antigen, produced an antibody response in baboons and reduced fertility in the females. Animal fertility control vaccines will be shortly on the market, but the use of recombinant DNA techniques should also accelerate the development of others.


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    Patience is a conquering virtue. The learned say that, if it not desert you, It vanquishes what force can never reach; Why answer back at every angry speech? No, learn forbearance or, I'll tell you what, You will be taught it, whether you will or not.
    -Geoffrey Chaucer

    Offline Emile

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    Re: Anti-fertility vaccines abstract (take notice of last sentence)
    « Reply #1 on: June 28, 2021, 02:35:43 PM »
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  •  Infertility in mice induced by the rhesus monkey chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit glycoprotein (rmCGbeta) using DNA immunization
    Yun Chen  1 Zhe LiuYing YangYou-Zhen ChenJing-Pian Peng
    Affiliations
    Abstract
    The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pCMV4-rmCGbeta, inserted full-length cDNA of the beta-subunit of rhesus monkey chorionic gonadotropin (rmCGbeta), as DNA immuno-contraceptive against CGbeta glycoprotein, has previously demonstrated the biological expression of rmCGbeta in vitro and in vivo. The plasmid DNA of pCMV4-rmCGbeta was inoculated into BALB/c mice at different doses and routes as DNA immuno-contraceptive to understand its antifertility effect. The results of immune responses indicated that the intradermal inoculation is the optimal pCMV4-rmCGbeta DNA delivery method for BALB/c mice, and the dose of 10 microg should be enough to elicit immune response. With different doses from 10-50 microg, marked reductions in the fertility of the female mice after two intramuscular inoculations of pCMV4-rmCGbeta DNA were seen, while the similar level of humoral immune responses were induced. With the dose of 20 microg of pCMV4-rmCGbeta DNA, the mice showed reduction in fertility from intraperitoneal, and intradermal to intramuscular inoculating method. The antifertility effect of antiserum from immunized mice confirmed that the antibodies elicited by pCMV4-rmCGbeta DNA could prevent pregnancy in female mice. At the same time, the full-length cDNA of beta-subunit of mouse chorionic gonadotropin (muCGbeta) was cloned from placenta and sequenced for the first time (GenBank Accession No. AF333067). Sequence analysis showed that muCGbeta shares 99.6% homology with rmCGbeta and 90.6% with hCGbeta respectively. The results indicated that the infertility of BALB/c mice induced by pCMV4-rmCGbeta contraceptive should be further studied as a CGbeta DNA contraceptive. (Mol Cell Biochem 231: 89-96, 2002)
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    Patience is a conquering virtue. The learned say that, if it not desert you, It vanquishes what force can never reach; Why answer back at every angry speech? No, learn forbearance or, I'll tell you what, You will be taught it, whether you will or not.
    -Geoffrey Chaucer


    Offline Emile

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    Re: Anti-fertility vaccines abstract (take notice of last sentence)
    « Reply #2 on: June 28, 2021, 02:42:00 PM »
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  •  Relevance of immuno-contraceptive vaccines for population control. I. Hormonal immunocontraception
    S K Gupta  1 P T Koothan
    Affiliations
    • PMID: 2126920
    Abstract
    Human chorionic gonadotropin--subunit beta (beta-hCG) has been so far most extensively studied antigen for immuno-contraceptive properties. Studies of vaccination of non-human primates has been so far controversially reported since some antisera obtained from baboons immunized with beta-hCG had shown cross-reactivity to other tissues. Despite these problems and concerns about the complete safety of this first generation vaccine, a decision has been made to proceed with a limited clinical trials with this vaccine. Results from these trials are encouraging and indicate that contraceptive antibody titers can be achieved with permissible adjuvants. Neutralization of LH and/or FSH by circulating antibodies may impede their action and interfere with the maturation of gametes. Gonadotropin releasing hormone can be also a suitable target for immunological attack.
    PIP: The human reproductive process entails numerous possible sites for immunological intervention aimed at controlling fertility. Currently under investigation are a vaccine based on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) interception, regulation of male fertility by immunointerception of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), vaccines based on the neutralization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and anti-hCG immunization. In Phase I clinical trials, passive transfer of anti-GnRH antibody has produced short-term infertility; long-term infertility has been achieved through active immunization against the decapeptide. In terms of FSH, the research has failed to demonstrate how long-term neutralization brings about male infertility. Before immunization against FSh is considered further as a means of immunocontraception, further studies are needed on the required levels of physiological FSH and testosterone for normal testicular functions to be maintained. 4 other Phase I clinical trials in this area involve vaccines based on the beta subunit of hCG or its fragment. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that contraceptive antibody titers can be obtained with permissible adjuvants, especially tetanus toxoid.
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    Patience is a conquering virtue. The learned say that, if it not desert you, It vanquishes what force can never reach; Why answer back at every angry speech? No, learn forbearance or, I'll tell you what, You will be taught it, whether you will or not.
    -Geoffrey Chaucer


     

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