Lots of stuff to cover here but I'll do my best.
I'd rather talk about this than the other current events going on right now! :D
And you keep it fun and not contentious, so thank you for that!
So if we spin at 1000mph why don't we feel 1000mph winds?
How do we know planets and the moon have rocks and dust?
Here is a photo of a moon rock:
Moon Rock Is Really Just Petrified Wood
"A prize possession in the Dutch national museum is not what the curators thought. In 1969, three Apollo 11 astronauts visited the Netherlands. And the U.S. ambassador gave the Dutch prime minister what he said was a moon rock. When an expert saw the rock in the museum, he didn't think it was real. Geologists have identified the moon rock as petrified wood."
Ooops. They pulled a fast one 'em! LOL
There are a lot of points for sure. I have to drop out of this topic sometimes because it takes a while to go through it all
I'm with you on talking about this over other current events! And you keep it fun as well so I appreciate that in return!
For your first question, regarding 1000mph winds:
I could talk about how everyone says motion is relative or that the upper atmosphere makes it so that you don't have wind. I don't think you would find that helpful, so I will raise a different point :)
Mars has an atmosphere that is somewhat similar to ours. Actually I believe it is thinner, which shouldn't hurt this argument at all. A martian day/night cycle is very similar to Earth's, at 24hr, 37 min. Since it is smaller than Earth, with a slightly longer day, Mars spins at 539.48 MPH, according to this source:https://www.universetoday.com/14889/mars-rotation/
Now, one might wonder about Mars having constant 539.48 mph winds, right? It doesn't! And you can see this with a backyard telescope. Now, apparently Mars is best observed every 2 ish years due to its orbit (it is closest at this time), so you can't just always look and expect to see it, but it is an observable thing for anyone with a decent scope.
Now, what do I mean about being able to observe the lack of wind?
What I mean is that you can see when there actually is wind, versus when there isn't. Mars is famous for occasionally throwing up some massive duststorms. According to a couple sources (which may track back to NASA, so take with a grain of salt) the winds on Mars were often around 20mph, and sometimes in excess of 70mph.
I am betting that a backyard astronomer could actually measure to confirm the speeds, but I haven't looked into whether it has or hasn't been done as of yet.
My point basically boils down to: if being on a round and spinning planet requires you to experience constant winds traveling at the same speed the planet turns, why would there not ALWAYS be dust storms on Mars?https://cosmicpursuits.com/2183/how-to-see-mars-in-2020/
This link gives some relevant info on what I am talking about above. There are some cool pictures too! The dust storms are actually insanely massive when they do kick up, and they are well observed as they unfortunately prevent unobstructed viewing of Mars at times.
Oh, and about the atmosphere being thinner... Wouldn't that make the wind more likely to happen?
What I think of is this: if you have a bowl of thin soup, and you rotate it in your hands, the bowl rotates but the soup does not follow it. If you have a thicker soup, it is more likely to rotate with the bowl. Similarly, I would expect that a planet with thinner atmosphere would spin more freely from the atmosphere. Thicker atmosphere would follow better, right?
Another thing is, to my understanding, the winds on earth are far greater at higher elevations. I am sure we could confirm this if you haven't heard of that before. My thoughts are that the air nearest the ground "follows" the earth the best, and that the further out you go, the less inclined the air is to follow. I wonder how fast the winds are moving inside of a hurricane, versus on the ground...
Finally I get to your second point
This will be shorter. We know that there is dust on other planets because it is observable via backyard telescope. Mars, as mentioned above, is a perfect example. Your moon rock is a good one though, gotta love NASA
. I had heard of the petrified rock but never seen it before, so thanks for that!
I will quote the other points on a separate post as I find time :)