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Offline Matthew

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Dragons and dinosaurs
« on: October 12, 2021, 10:11:38 PM »
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  • I wanted to split off into a new thread -- starting with these words from another thread:


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    I think I’ve seen some of these, they’re great. Not to mention several descriptions of “dragons” from history seem to match with modern understandings of dinosaurs. When one combs through the various descriptions of dragons written during the age of Ancient Greece and Rome, however, the dragons described there are gigantic serpents that seem to be Old World relatives of the Titanoboa. 

    An intriguing and convincing case of a dinosaur that survived into more modern times is that of the Crosswicks Monster from Crosswicks, Ohio. I may post in a separate thread about this subject, as I would love to share some of my amateur research on this forum. 

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    Offline Matthew

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #1 on: October 12, 2021, 10:16:13 PM »
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  • One interesting point -- the 12-year Chinese zodiac cycle, with each year being a different animal, includes 12 different animals including the dragon.
    None of the animals in the 12-year cycle is mythical. In fact, the other non-dragon animals are quite banal and commonplace.

    Just look at them --


    Jan 23, 2031 – Feb 10, 2032Boar/Pig (Hai)
    Feb 3, 2030 – Jan 22, 2031Dog (Xu)
    Feb 13, 2029 – Feb 2, 2030Rooster (You)
    Jan 26, 2028 – Feb 12, 2029Monkey (Shen)
    Feb 6, 2027 – Jan 25, 2028Sheep (Wei)
    Feb 17, 2026 – Feb 5, 2027Horse (Wu)
    Jan 29, 2025 – Feb 16, 2026Snake (Si)
    Feb 10, 2024 – Jan 28, 2025Dragon (Chen)
    Jan 22, 2023 – Feb 9, 2024Rabbit (Mao)
    Feb 1, 2022 – Jan 21, 2023Tiger (Yin)
    Feb 12, 2021 – Jan 31, 2022Ox (Chou)
    Jan 25, 2020 – Feb 11, 2021Rat (Zi)

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    Offline StLouisIX

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #2 on: October 13, 2021, 12:20:23 AM »
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  • Thanks Matthew! Here is most of my research: 

    To most, the word “dragon” conjures up an image of a large scaly reptilian creature that walks on two or four feet and flies with imposing bat-like wings. However, sources from Antiquity and even the early Middle Ages convey a different understanding of these fascinating animals. St. Isidore of Seville in his Etymologies gives us this impressive definition:


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    The dragon (draco) is the largest of all the snakes, or of all the animals on earth. The Greeks call it drakon, whence the term is borrowed into Latin that we say draco. It is often drawn out of caves and soars aloft, and disturbs the air. It is crested, and has a small mouth and narrow pipes through which it draws breath and sticks out its tongue. It has its strength not in its teeth but on its tail, and it causes injury more more by its lashing tail than with its jaws. Also, it does not harm with poison; poison is not needed for this animal to kill, because it kills whatever it wraps itself around. Even the elephant with its huge body is not safe from the dragon, for it lurks around the paths along which the elephants are accustomed to walk, and wraps their legs in coils and kills by suffocating them. It is born in Ethiopia and India in the fiery intensity of perpetual heat.

    (Etymologies, Book 12, Chapter 4:4-5) 


    The image given here is essentially of a kind of gigantic serpent beyond any known living serpent, capable of killing using strangulation, a method used by living non-venomous snakes such as pythons. Considering that St. Isidore is careful to distinguish some level of difference between snakes and reptiles, as he defines the snake as being named after how it appear to creep (serpere) as it moves “…by secret approaches; it crawls not with open steps but tiny thrusts of its scales”, whereas he categorizes reptiles as being “…those animals that support themselves on four feet, like the lizard and the newt, are not snakes, but are called reptiles (reptile)”*, the lack of him mentioning any limbs on this animal is very telling, along with him describing it as “the largest of all the snakes”. 

    Furthermore, other ancient Western sources corroborate this description of the dragon, in particular the authors Pliny the Elder and Aelian, both of whom wrote extensively on the subject of natural science. Though much of their research is considered outdated by modern standards, they are still respected as pioneers in this field. Pliny writes of the battles between elephants and dragons in great detail in Book VIII of his Natural History, when discussing the intelligence of the latter: 



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    The dragon has much difficulty in climbing up to so great a height, and therefore, watching the road, which bears marks of their footsteps when going to feed, it darts down upon them from a lofty tree. The elephant knows that it is quite unable to struggle against the folds of the serpent, and so seeks for trees or rocks against which to rub itself. The dragon is on its guard against this, and tries to prevent it, by first of all confining the legs of this animal with the folds of its tail; while the elephant, on the other hand, endeavours to disengage itself with its trunk. The dragon, however, thrusts its head into its nostrils, and thus, at the same moment, stops the breath and wounds the most tender parts. When it is met unexpectedly, the dragon raises itself up, faces its opponent, and flies more especially at the eyes; this is the reason why elephants are so often found blind, and worn to a skeleton with hunger and misery. What other cause can one assign for mighty strifes such as these, except that Nature is desirous, as it were, to make an exhibition for herself, pitting such opponents against each other?

    (Natural History, Book VIII pg 260)



    Quite a intriguing passage, considering that no snake alive in India in our time would have the strength or courage to engage an elephant in this kind of titanic struggle. However, as has been often said, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Aelian also recounts tales of these battles in the sixth volume of his work On the Characteristics of Animals:


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    In India, I am told, the Elephant and the Drakon (Dragon-Serpent) are the bitterest enemies. Now Elephants draw down the branches of trees and feed upon them. And the Drakones, knowing this, crawl up the trees and envelop the lower half of their bodies in the foliage, but the upper portion extending to the head they allow to hang loose like a rope. And the Elephant approaches to pluck the twigs, whereat the Drakon springs at its eyes and gouges them out. Next the Drakon winds round the Elephant's neck, and as it clings to the tree with the lower part of its body, it tightens its hold with the upper part and strangles the Elephant with an unusual and singular noose.

    (On the Characteristics of Animals, 6.21)

    https://www.theoi.com/Thaumasios/DrakonesIndikoi.html



    In order to address those who may just dismiss these stories as mere traveler’s tales, it is important to note that there are similar stories of dragons as living within the native lands of the aforementioned authors, and within the lands of nearby Greece. Similar to these stories of Indian dragons, accounts from these parts of Europe term “dragons” as being large serpents, though not to the scale of the Indian dragons. A great repository of accounts from Ancient Rome can be found here (Thanks Laramie!): https://forge-and-anvil.com/2018/10/01/ancient-rome-had-a-dragon/

    One such dragon was even brought to pagan Rome and worshipped as a god. Here is one account out of many from the link that addresses this event: 


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    When the [Roman] state was suffering with a pestilence, ambassadors [who were] deployed in order to transfer the image of Aesculapius to Rome from Epidaurus, brought a snake, which had brought itself into their ship, by which it was agreed that the god himself was present; and on the [serpent‟s] going [ashore] on the island of the Tiber, on the same place a temple was established to Aesculapius. (Valerius Maximus)



    As mentioned in St. Isidore’s description, there are also accounts of dragons as having lived in the lands known by the ancients as Ethiopia, which was not the same location in their mind as the modern African nation of the same name. Aelian has the most informative account of any author on this specific breed since he provides measurements for their size, which none before or after him did. Of these gargantuan creatures and their homeland, he writes: 


    Quote
    The land of Aithiopia (Ethiopia)--the place where the gods bathe, celebrated by Homer under the name of Okeanos (Oceanus), is an excellent and desirable neighbour--this land, I say, is the mother of the very largest Drakones (Dragon-Serpents). For, you must know, they attain to a length of one hundred and eighty feet, and they are not called by the name of any species, but people say that they kill elephants, and these Drakones rival the longest-lived animals. Thus far the accounts from Aithiopia.

    (On the Characteristics of Animals, 2.21) 

    https://www.theoi.com/Thaumasios/DrakonesAithiopikoi.html



    These descriptions from the “Dragon-Serpents” correspond most with the Titanoboa, a species of giant serpent that lived in South America some millions of years ago, according to the erroneous teachings of the paleontologists. These creatures could grow up to 50 feet long, and are regarded as the largest snakes that ever lived. I find it more than likely that the “Dragon-Serpents” were Old World relatives of this creature. 

    Not all documentation of dragons in history describe them as being massive serpents, and I will illustrate this in future posts. 

    Offline hansel

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #3 on: October 13, 2021, 01:33:48 PM »
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  • Thank you StLouisIX, this is fascinating to ponder.

    I agree, the accounts of Pliny, Aelian, and St. Isidore all seem to describe this "dragon" as a massive constrictor snake similar to a boa or python. It is interesting how many details are shared between the three accounts; location of the animal in India, trapping/killing prey via constriction, elephants being the prey of choice, and a possible arboreal (tree-living) behavior. Interestingly, pythons currently living in India (the Indian python, Python molurus) also spend much of their time in trees, but are much smaller than the animals in question. 

    If possible, it would be relevant to explore whether these three accounts had their ultimate origin in Pliny or some earlier author (and the later authors preserved/added to his original account as St. Albert the Great did with Aristotle's natural history works), or if the authors received these accounts from different contemporary sources at different times. If the second scenario is true, it would be even more interesting, as it would indicate separate yet extremely similar observations of the same animal and its behavior at different times. Also, looking into native writers in India before or contemporary to these Western authors might be interesting. 

    Also, the location of India is intriguing from a paleontology perspective. The fossils in India are apparently very poorly studied, due to both a lack of paleontologists and poorly maintained/nonexistent natural history museums, which cannot properly curate specimens. This deficiency has even been remarked in the media (disclaimer, the following article is from the mainstream media, and I do not condone any non-Catholic ideas within; I include it only to indicate the state of paleontology in India. I doubt things have improved much since this article was released in 2017.): 

    https://thewire.in/science/palaeontology-endangered-india


    Therefore, it would be amazing if a future expedition found remains similar to those of Titanoboa in India. Due to the deficiencies in Indian paleontology, no one has even begun to look, and there is currently no data to rule out such a discovery. Along with probably many other fossil finds over there, it is basically an open opportunity for the first one to try.



    Offline Mr G

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #4 on: October 13, 2021, 02:15:12 PM »
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  • Offline Seraphina

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #5 on: October 13, 2021, 03:16:29 PM »
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  • What about a Komodo dragon?  Their breathe and saliva is poisonous.  They’re highly aggressive, voracious carnivores as well as exceedingly fearsome and ugly!


    https://youtube.com/watch?v=gA_m4reQjnQ&feature=share

    Offline StLouisIX

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #6 on: October 13, 2021, 07:10:18 PM »
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  • Thank you StLouisIX, this is fascinating to ponder.

    I agree, the accounts of Pliny, Aelian, and St. Isidore all seem to describe this "dragon" as a massive constrictor snake similar to a boa or python. It is interesting how many details are shared between the three accounts; location of the animal in India, trapping/killing prey via constriction, elephants being the prey of choice, and a possible arboreal (tree-living) behavior. Interestingly, pythons currently living in India (the Indian python, Python molurus) also spend much of their time in trees, but are much smaller than the animals in question.

    If possible, it would be relevant to explore whether these three accounts had their ultimate origin in Pliny or some earlier author (and the later authors preserved/added to his original account as St. Albert the Great did with Aristotle's natural history works), or if the authors received these accounts from different contemporary sources at different times. If the second scenario is true, it would be even more interesting, as it would indicate separate yet extremely similar observations of the same animal and its behavior at different times. Also, looking into native writers in India before or contemporary to these Western authors might be interesting.

    Thanks, I’m glad you’ve enjoyed reading about this! 

    I have thought about looking into some Indian authors concerning these kinds of legends, but I think that studying their mythology concerning nagas (which is essentially their version of the dragon) would be more practical as there is a lot more there to work with. Though nagas are often depicted as half-human, half-serpent, I have heard it said that some nagas were said to be entirely serpentine, or were shapeshifters of some kind. This implies to me that there is some corroboration with what Westerners wrote about dragons living in India, and that perhaps the legend of the half-human, half-serpent nagas were the products of Hindu mythologizing the giant serpentine dragon. After all, the Hindus seem to make idols out of almost every animal native to India (elephants and monkeys are examples), so for them to mythologize dragons as entities that share some resemblance to humans makes sense in this context. 

    Here is some information from Britannica.com concerning the various depictions of the naga that corroborates my point: 

    Quote
    In art, nagas are represented in a fully zoomorphic form, as hooded cobras having one to seven or more heads; as human beings with a many-hooded snake canopy over their heads; or as half human, with the lower part of the body below the navel coiled like a snake and a canopy of hoods over the heads. Often they are shown in postures of adoration, as one of the major gods or heroes is shown accomplishing some miraculous feat before their eyes.

    A problem with my reasoning here is that most nagas seem to be depicted as cobras, a poisonous snake, while Europeans clearly wrote of dragons being non-poisonous and being more like pythons. I should do more research to see if I can find naga depictions that align clearly with python-like traits. 

    More info on the role of nagas within Hindu mythology: 

    Quote
    Nagas are a race of semidivine serpent creatures in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Female Nagas are called Nagis or Naginis. Usually depicted as human above the waist and snake below the waist, Nagas can also change shape to appear fully human or snake. Nagas and Nagis are known for their strength, supernatural wisdom, and good looks. When Nagis take human form, they can marry mortal men, and some Indian dynasties claim descent from them.

    According to legend, Nagas are children of Kadru, the granddaughter of the god Brahma*, and her husband, Kasyapa. Nagas lived on earth at first, but their numbers became so great that Brahma sent them to live under the sea. They reside in magnificent jeweled palaces and rule as kings at the bottom of rivers and lakes and in the underground realm called Patala.

    Like humans, Nagas show wisdom and concern for others but also cowardice and injustice. Nagas are immortal and potentially dangerous. Some are demons; others seem friendly and are worshiped as gods. Nagas also serve as protectors and guardians of treasure—both material riches and spiritual wealth.

    One famous Naga named Muchalinda spreads his cobra hood to shelter the prophet Buddha while he meditates. When the god Vishnu* sleeps, he is protected by Shesha, king of the Nagas. Shesha's seven snake heads cover the god. As servants of the god Indra, Nagas oversee the distribution of rain. Sometimes they withhold the rain until forced to release it by the eagle god Garuda.




    Offline StLouisIX

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #7 on: October 13, 2021, 08:39:14 PM »
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  • Here is the original news story of the Crosswicks Monster from 1882: 



    Quote
    Waynesville, Ohio, May 29. Although this is an old settled neighborhood, and the primitive snakes in the main, have long since disappeared; except the black, garter and rattlesnake and occasionally some of other species, we are once in a while greeted with the report of some monster of this uncanny tribe.

    For several years it has been reported that the track of one above the town, of unusual size, had, on different occasions, been seen in the dust, where it had crossed the pike. This report made the timid fearful, while the generality of the people did not seem to fear or care anything about it; and it has been reserved until yesterday to develop one of the most remarkable specimens ever seen, in or out of snake season, and the story thereof is so well authenticated that the more incredulous of the neighborhood on big snake stories are forced at last to lend an attentive ear. 

    About one mile north of this place is a little village called Crosswicks, in which several colored families reside. Among the rest is John Lynch, who has two boys, Ed. And Joe, aged respectively thirteen and eleven years. These boys were at a small creek on the south side of the village fishing, yesterday. After sitting on the bank a short time they heard quite a stir among some old reeds, grass and brush behind them, and on looking round they saw a huge monster approaching them rapidly. They screamed and, paralyzed almost with horror, started to run, when the snake, or whatever it might be—for they never saw aught like it before; came close up to the older one, and suddenly throwing out two long arms, or forelegs, seized the boy in its slimy embrace, simultaneously producing two more legs, about four feet long, from some mysterious hiding place in its body, and dragged the boy some one hundred yards down the creek to a large sycamore, twenty-six feet in diameter at the base, hollow, and with a large opening on one side. Through this aperture the monster attempted to enter with the boy who by this time was almost dead with fright and unable to make any resistance.

    Three men—viz., Rev. Jacob Horn, George Peterson and Allen Jordan—were quarrying stone a short distance above where the boys were fishing, and hearing their screams and seeing the creature yanking one off, hurried in an attempt to rescue the child. They reached the tree just as the snake, who, failing in its first attempt to drag the boy into his den, became alarmed, probably by the cries made by its pursuers, unfastened its horrible fangs and dropped the more than half dead child to the earth. The little fellow was picked up and carried home, and Dr. L.C. Lukens, of Waynesville, summoned to attend him.

    In the afternoon about sixty men, armed with clubs, dog, axes, &c., gathered around the sycamore-tree and concluded to cut it down and destroy its fearful tenant. They began cutting, when, becoming alarmed for his safety, the formidable snake leaped from the aperture, threw out its fore and hind legs, erected itself about twelve or fourteen feet, and, with the velocity of a race horse, crossed the creek and ran up a small hill, climbed over a rail fence, breaking it down, and, continuing north a mile, followed by the pursuers, until he reached a hole in a large hill under a heavy ledge of rocks. Some of the men and dogs were so terrified at the beast’s first appearance that they only thought of getting out of the way. But the braver portion followed until the frightful thing made good his retreat underneath the ground.

    It will be watched for and killed if possible. It is described as being from thirty to forty feet long, sixteen inches in diameter, and the legs four feet long and covered with scales the same as the body. Feet about twelve inches long and shaped like a lizard’s, of black and white color, with large yellow spots. Head about sixteen inches wide, with a long, black forked tongue and the mouth inside deep red. The hind legs appeared to be used to give it an erect position, and its propelling power is in its tail.

    Dr. Lukens said this morning that the boy, his patient, was badly bruised and scratched, horribly frightened, and that he lay in convulsions and spasms until three o’clock this morning, when he fell asleep, but frequently wakened with fright and terror, yet the Doctor thinks he will recover in a few days.

    The foregoing is vouched for by the persons whose names are given above, and many more can be given if necessary, the material points having been furnished your correspondent by Judge J. W. Keys, one of our oldest and most influential citizens.

    https://www.wchsmuseum.org/blog/crosswickmonster


    I first heard of this obscure tale in John Lemay’s book Cowboys and Saurians, and the background research he brings in his examination of it is fascinating. He notes that concerning the line about its “…hind legs appeared to be used to give it an erect position, and its propelling power is in its tail.” that this is something in favor of this story being an authentic dinosaur encounter, as all depictions of that time detailed dinosaurs as being “tail draggers”. Furthermore, such wording indicates that this reptilian animal stood on two feet, much like a theropod dinosaur. If this was a fake story, then the creature would have been written according to the theories of the time, not according to data that was ahead of the time. Note  also that the usage of “serpent” or “snake” for this animal was done in the same context that we take it today. In that time, serpent was used more loosely than it is now. 

    Lemay also proved the identities of the men mentioned in this news article as being real people: 


    Quote
    I looked into the matter myself, finding the doctor, L.C. Lukens, mentioned in the journal American Observer Medical Monthly, Volume 12 from 1875. The publication mentions how L.C. Lukens graduated from Pulte Medical College on February 11, 1875, in Cincinnati, Ohio. There were many other records of Lukens to be found. 

    According to the article’s end, it was Judge J.W. Keys, who related the story to the reporter. And indeed, there was a great deal to be found about the Honorable Judge Keys, who was the mayor of nearby Waynesville, Ohio, in 1839. Mention of his retirement can be found in the Miami-Gazette on February 19th, 1879, which states that “upon the completion of his term of office as Probate Judge of Warren County, and his relinquishment of its emoluments and honors, one day of last week, Judge Keys was presented with a handsome ebony and gold cane by his associates in and about the court house.” 

    Now, “respectable citizens” could certainly receive some good-natured amusement by serving as the “credible witness” of a snaik story [a kind of fake news story involving strange reptiles] in all good fun. However, this story wasn’t really in good fun as it depicts the abduction and possibly fatal experience of a child. It seems an odd tale for judge to endorse were it not true.

    Having discovered that most of these men were real, my next question was: did Ed Lynch, the victim, die? According to some stories, the youth passed away a few days later after being attacked by the monster. While I found no death records for Ed Lynch in Warren County, I can say that I found records of his brother, Joseph Lynch, marrying a Lucinda Havens in 1889. The math adds up, as Joseph would have been 18 by that time, the typical age most young men his age wed. That there were no records for Ed getting married is telling. 

    In looking at death records, curiously, Joseph Lynch died only two years after he married in 1891! The father, John Lynch, died in 1903. Oddly, there was no record of Ed Lynch at all in the Warren County obituaries. Of course, the listing was up for deaths until the early 1900s. Presuming he survived the attack, being born in 1869, Ed Lynch could have lived into the 1960s. If he had though, chances are he would have told his remarkable story to someone while he was alive. 

    But, considering that Ed was not only frightened half to death but also clawed and and bitten by the reptile, his wounds could have become infected to a fatal extent. Considering that the article states that the monster “unfastened its horrible fangs” from Ed’s body, chances sound good that he was bitten by the creature. Since there are many poisonous lizards, like the Gila Monsters and the Komodo Dragons (which this creature somewhat resembles), it seems likely that if Ed were to be bitten, the bite could be poisonous. 

    pgs. 63-65


    Though some claim that this creature was a kind of monitor lizard similar to the Komodo Dragon (which would be strange enough to find in North America!), the description in the newspaper points to a more dinosaurian creature. Monitor lizards can’t run on their hind feet, and moreover, they are incapable of doing so while keeping their tail above the ground. 

    Here is some analysis from Lemay concerning some more details from the article: 


    Quote
    The article writes of the creature “suddenly throwing out two long arms, or forelegs, seized the boy in its slimy embrace, simultaneously producing two more legs, about four feet long, from some mysterious hiding place in its body…” 

    A terror-stricken boy, who had presumably never seen pictures of dinosaurs or large monitor lizards, would likely be at a loss for words as to how to describe such a creature. And, if the beast were hunted low in a stalking position, perhaps the witness would not have noticed the hind legs until it began to use them. 

    pgs. 66-67


    He also mentions a report of a similar creature being seen in Trimble County, Kentucky in 1975, which is not far from the town where this attack took place. A certain Mark Hall is credited with finding this report. It was described to be 15 feet in size and could comfortably move around as either a quadrupedal or a bipedal stance. Moreover, it even had black and white stripes along with orange speckles on its body, similar to the Crosswicks Monster. From Oklahoma, there is an old Yuchi Indian legend concerning a “monster lizard” that lived in hollowed-out trees and used its forelimbs like arms to grab a boy. A cryptozoologist named Nick Suick was the first to compare this legend to the story of the Crosswicks Monster. 

    It seems to me that these stories are all describing the same kind of creature, just across different cultures and time periods. 

    The attached picture is an artist’s depiction of the creature. 


    Offline StLouisIX

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    Re: Dragons and dinosaurs
    « Reply #8 on: October 14, 2021, 10:16:24 PM »
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  • The story of St. Columba driving away the Loch Ness Monster (often to be considered some kind of plesiosaur - not a dinosaur, but a marine reptile) is actually the first reported sighting of the creature. 

    Here is the account lifted from the Life of St. Columba written by Adamnan: 


    Quote
    CHAPTER XXVIII 


    How an Aquatic Monster was driven off by Virtue of the Blessed Man’s Prayer.
     
    On another occasion also, when the blessed man was living for some days in the province of the Picts, he was obliged to cross the river Nesa; and when he reached the bank of the river, he saw some of the inhabitants burying an unfortunate man, who, according to the account of those who were burying him, was a short time before seized, as he was swimming, and bitten most severely by a monster that lived in the water; his wretched body was, though too late, taken out with a hook, by those who came to his assistance in a boat.

    The blessed man, on hearing this, was so far from being dismayed, that he directed one of his companions to swim over and row across the coble that was moored at the farther bank.

    And Lugne Mocumin hearing the command of the excellent man, obeyed without the least delay, taking off all his clothes, except his tunic, and leaping into the water.

    But the monster, which, so far from being satiated, was only roused for more prey, was lying at the bottom of the stream, and when it felt the water disturbed above by the man swimming, suddenly rushed out, and, giving an awful roar, darted after him, with its mouth wide open, as the man swam in the middle of the stream.

    Then the blessed man observing this, raised his holy hand, while all the rest, brethren as well as strangers, were stupefied with terror, and, invoking the name of God, formed the saving sign of the cross in the air, and commanded the ferocious monster, saying, “Thou shalt go no further, nor touch the man; go back with all speed.” Then at the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, and fled more quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes, though it had just got so near to Lugne, as he swam, that there was not more than the length of a spear-staff between the man and the beast.

    Then the brethren seeing that the monster had gone back, and that their comrade Lugne returned to them in the boat safe and sound, were struck with admiration, and gave glory to God in the blessed man. And even the barbarous heathens, who were present, were forced by the greatness of this miracle, which they themselves had seen, to magnify the God of the Christians.

    https://catholicism.org/saint-columba-and-the-loch-ness-monster.html


    How great a testimony this is to the power of prayer! I conclude my brief commentary with these words of Fr. Michael Mueller, C.SS.R: 


    Quote
    Ah, how powerful is the prayer of the just! It not only exercises its power over all kinds of creatures, rational and irrational; over those in Heaven, on earth and under the earth; it not only disarms the wrath of God against entire nations, lost to the fear and love of their Creator; it exercises even a mightier sway; it gives free access to the spiritual treasures of God; it causes them to flow in perpetual streams upon sinners, as well as upon the just, and to operate wonderful changes in their souls. 

    (Prayer: The Key to Salvation pg. 90)





     

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