Here is some technical information on 5G at https://spectrum.ieee.org/video/telecom/wireless/everything-you-need-to-know-about-5g
Read carefully. If wave forms as low as 1 millimeter are used, and they are permitted to use 1 mm, then this 5G technology can penetrate window screens, and can go everywhere in your home. Nothing will be safe, unless you put a solid metal barrier around your home and barricade the windows. It will be a dark home indeed.
So, if you use the new LED lights to light that dark house, that technology is a problem in itself.
27 Jan 2017 | 19:00 GMT (more than 1.5 years old already)
Everything You Need to Know About 5G
Millimeter waves, massive MIMO, full duplex, beamforming, and small cells are just a few of the technologies that could enable ultrafast 5G networks
By Amy Nordrum, Kristen Clark and IEEE Spectrum Staff
Today’s mobile users want faster data speeds and more reliable service. The next generation of wireless networks—5G—promises to deliver that, and much more. With 5G, users should be able to download a high-definition film in under a second (a task that could take 10 minutes on 4G LTE). And wireless engineers say these networks will boost the development of other new technologies, too, such as autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things.
If all goes well, telecommunications companies hope to debut the first commercial 5G networks in the early 2020s. Right now, though, 5G is still in the planning stages, and companies and industry groups are working together to figure out exactly what it will be. But they all agree on one matter: As the number of mobile users and their demand for data rises, 5G must handle far more traffic at much higher speeds than the base stations that make up today’s cellular networks.
To achieve this, wireless engineers are designing a suite of brand-new technologies. Together, these technologies will deliver data with less than a millisecond of delay (compared to about 70 ms on today’s 4G networks) and bring peak download speeds of 20 gigabits per second (compared to 1 Gb/s on 4G) to users.
[PICK YOUR POISON] -- Some notes from the video. [Information in brackets is my input]
There are five 5G technologies
that have emerged: millimeter waves, small cells, massive MIMO, full duplex, and beamforming.1. MILLIMETER WAVESMillimeter waves
, which vary in length from 1 to 10 mm,
use higher frequencies than radio waves. Radio waves, which are used in mobile phones, are longer than millimeter waves.
Millimeter waves are broadcast at frequencies between 30 and 300 gigahertz, compared to the bands below 6 GHz that were used for mobile devices in the past. They are called millimeter waves because they vary in length from 1 to 10 mm, compared to the radio waves that serve today’s smartphones, which measure tens of centimeters in length. Until now, only operators of satellites and radar systems used millimeter waves for real-world applications.2. SMALL CELLSWhile small cells antennae
There is one major drawback to millimeter waves, though—they can’t easily travel through buildings or obstacles and they can be absorbed by foliage and rain.
can be easily attached to light poles and buildings because of their small size, a 5G network will require many more base stations as they need to be spaced 250 meters apart. This will make rural installations almost impossible especially in mountainous areas, The maintenance and installation in forests and in mountains will be quite expensive.3. MASSIVE MIMOMIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output.
Instead of 8 cellular transmitters and four cellular receivers found on today's 4G base station, 5G base stations can have a hundred ports on a single array. Thus, many more antennas can handle much more traffic by a factor of 22 plus.
While some 4G arrays, installed with MIMO, have set new records for spectrum efficiency
, a measure of how many bits of data can be transmitted to a number of users per second, MASSIVE MIMO requires massive arrays of antenna which can cause signals to criss-cross. 4. BEAMFORMING
[The danger of beamforming is that a concentrated beam could be focused at the direction of a user. While beamforming reduces any interference, it also increases the risk that an individual will receive a massive amount of directed energy beams that could damage his brain. Think of a child who regularly received this kind of beam while talking with friends, gaming, or homeschooling. This beamforming could also be used for assassination attempts.]
Beamforming can help massive MIMO arrays make more efficient use of the spectrum around them. The primary challenge for massive MIMO is to reduce interference while transmitting more information from many more antennas at once. At massive MIMO base stations, signal-processing algorithms plot the best transmission route through the air to each user. Then they can send individual data packets in many different directions, bouncing them off buildings and other objects in a precisely coordinated pattern. By choreographing the packets’ movements and arrival time, beamforming allows many users and antennas on a massive MIMO array to exchange much more information at once.5. FULL DUPLEX
Today's 4G technology relies on transceivers, which take turns transmitting and receiving information over the same frequency, or it can operate on different frequencies to transmit and receive information simultaneously, However, with full duplex
, 5G is able to transmit and receive data simultaneously on the same frequency. This new technology can double the capacity of wireless networks.
Some militaries already use full duplex technology that relies on bulky equipment. To achieve full duplex in personal devices, researchers must design a circuit that can route incoming and outgoing signals so they don’t collide while an antenna is transmitting and receiving data at the same time.
This is especially hard because of the tendency of radio waves to travel both forward and backward on the same frequency—a principle known as reciprocity. But recently, experts have assembled silicon transistors that act like high-speed switches to halt the backward roll of these waves, enabling them to transmit and receive signals on the same frequency at once.
One drawback to full duplex is that it also creates more signal interference, through a pesky echo. When a transmitter emits a signal, that signal is much closer to the device’s antenna and therefore more powerful than any signal it receives. Expecting an antenna to both speak and listen at the same time is possible only with special echo-canceling technology.
With these and other 5G technologies, engineers hope to build the wireless network that future smartphone users, VR gamers, and autonomous cars will rely on every day. Already, researchers and companies have set high expectations for 5G by promising ultralow latency and record-breaking data speeds for consumers. If they can solve the remaining challenges, and figure out how to make all these systems work together, ultrafast 5G service could reach consumers in the next five years.
[My main concern would be the use of BEAMFORMING and millimeter waves. There are safety issues which need to be addressed.]
[The Cubans, Russians, and Chinese have developed a similar program that is causing our diplomats in Cuba and elsewhere to suffer from severe headaches, etc. Could they be using a new technology similar to 5G?
And more importantly, has 5G been tested on animals, or will it be to see if it is safe for human use?]