Author Topic: Necessity of Penance and Baptism - Trent, Session 14, Chap. 2  (Read 199 times)

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Offline Lastdays

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Necessity of Penance and Baptism - Trent, Session 14, Chap. 2
« on: November 26, 2017, 07:58:17 PM »
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  • Does the following quote actually support the notion of Baptism of desire?

    Pope Julius III, Council of Trent, Sess. 14, Chap. 2, On Penance: This sacrament of Penance, moreover, is necessary for the salvation of those who have fallen after baptism, as baptism itself is necessary for those not yet regenerated.


    Many supporters of BOD use the above passage as a proof of their false position. A closer look, however, shows that this passage does not mean what they think it does. For when Trent says “necessary”, they are not referring to the necessity for salvation in terms of the way the grace of each sacrament is received. Rather, Trent is stating that each Sacrament is necessary for salvation from divine right or law. In other words, they were not made necessary for salvation by mere human law, which can be erroneous or subject to change. It is in this way that they are alike. To further illustrate this point, I will now give several more passages from Trent…

    Pope Paul III, Council of Trent, Sess. 14, Can. 6 on the Sacrament of Penance:

    “6.  Si quis negaverit, confessionem sacramentalem vel institutam vel ad salutem necessariam esse iure divino… a.s.”

    CANON VI.--If any one denieth, either that sacramental confession was instituted or is necessary to salvation of divine right (law); or saith, that the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, which the Church hath ever observed from the beginning, and doth observe, is alien from the institution and command of Christ, and is a human invention; let him be anathema.

    and…

    Council of Trent, Sess. 14, Chap 5
    From the institution of the sacrament of Penance as already explained, the universal Church has always understood, that the entire confession of sins was also instituted by the Lord, and is of divine right necessary for all who have fallen after baptism

    Trent explains that both the sacrament of Penance and the entire confession of sins was instituted by Divine right or law. They are making a distinction between human law and Divine law as we will now see…

    Council of Trent, Sess. 14, Chap 5 (cont.)
    …For the rest, as to the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, although Christ has not forbidden that a person may,--in punishment of his sins, and for his own humiliation, as well for an example to others as for the edification of the Church that has been scandalized,--confess his sins publicly, nevertheless this is not commanded by a divine precept; neither would it very prudent(e) to enjoin by any human law, that sins, especially such as are secret, should be made known by a public confession. Wherefore, whereas the secret sacramental confession, which was in use from the beginning in holy Church, and is still also in use, has always been commended by the most holy and the most ancient Fathers with a great and unanimous consent, the vain calumny of those is manifestly refuted, who are not ashamed to teach, that confession is alien from the divine command, and is a human invention, and that it took its rise from the Fathers assembled in the Council of Lateran: for the Church did not, through the Council of Lateran, ordain that the faithful of Christ should confess,--a thing which it knew to be necessary, and to be instituted of divine right,--but that the precept of confession should be complied with, at least once a year, by all and each, when they have attained to years of discretion.

    Certain heretics were claiming that confession of sins and the sacrament of Penance were mere human laws which were subject to error and not in any way necessary for salvation. Trent was saying that these commands were of divine law and were for that reason “infallible” and were therefore necessary for salvation in the same way that Baptism was. IT IS IN THIS WAY THAT THE SACRAMENTS OF BAPTISM AND PENANCE ARE ALIKE. BOTH ARE DIVINE LAWS. Not in other ways, as Trent made sure to point out. In fact, Trent issued this canon to dispel any doubts that these two sacraments are not the same…

    Council of Trent, Session 14, CANON II.--If any one, confounding the sacraments, saith that baptism is itself the sacrament of Penance, as though these two Sacraments were not distinct, and that therefore Penance is not rightly called a second plank after shipwreck; let him be anathema.


    In fact, Trent, in the very chapter which says that they are alike (in the sense that they both are of divine right or law) dedicated nearly the whole chapter to highlight the differences between the sacrament of Penance and the sacrament of Baptism…

    Council of Trent, Session 14, CHAPTER II.
    On the difference between the Sacrament of Penance and that of Baptism.

    For the rest, this sacrament is clearly seen to be different from baptism in many respects: for besides that it is very widely different indeed in matter and form, which constitute the essence of a sacrament, it is beyond doubt certain that the minister of baptism need not be a judge, seeing that the Church exercises judgment on no one who has not entered therein through the gate of baptism. For, what have I, saith the apostle, to do to judge them that are without?(m) It is otherwise with those who are of the household of the faith, whom Christ our Lord has once, by the laver of baptism, made the members of His own body; for such, if they should afterwards have defiled themselves by any crime, He would no longer have them cleansed by a repetition of baptism--that being nowise lawful in the Catholic Church-but be placed as criminals before this tribunal; that, by the sentence of the priests, they might be freed, not once, but as often as, being penitent, they should, from their sins committed, flee thereunto. Furthermore, one is the fruit of baptism, and another that of penance. For, by baptism putting on Christ, (n) we are made therein entirely a new creature, obtaining a full and entire remission of all sins : unto which newness and entireness, however, we are no ways able to arrive by the sacrament of Penance, without many tears and great labours on our parts, the divine justice demanding this; so that penance has justly been called by holy Fathers a laborious kind of baptism. (o) And this sacrament of Penance is, for those who have fallen after baptism, necessary unto salvation ; as baptism itself is for those who have not as yet been regenerated.

    Notice how it highlights that it is through the laver of Baptism that one is made a member of Christ’s body, and that Baptism is the gate through which one enters the Catholic Church. Trent also make sure to point out that one is made entirely new (born again) through the sacrament of Baptism. Not so, with the sacrament of Penance.

    Council of Trent, Session 14, CANON VII.--If any one saith, that, in the sacrament of Penance, it is not necessary, of divine right, for the remission of sins, to confess all and singular the mortal sins which after due and diligent previous meditation are remembered, even those (mortal sins) which are secret, and those which are opposed to the two last commandments of the Decalogtie, as also the circumstances which change the species of a sin; but (saith) that such confession is only useful to instruct and console the penitent, and that it was of old only observed in order to impose a canonical satisfaction; or saith that they, who strive to confess all their sins, wish to leave nothing to the divine mercy to pardon ; or, finally, that it is not lawful to confess venial sins ; let him be anathema.

    Canon VII of the same session (above) also stresses that the confession of mortal sins is necessary of divine right. In other words, it was instituted by God and not man.

    Council of Trent, Session 14, Chap IV
    The Synod teaches moreover, that, although it sometimes happen that this contrition is perfect through charity, and reconciles man with God before THIS sacrament be actually received, the said reconciliation, nevertheless, is not to be ascribed to that contrition, independently of the desire of the sacrament which is included therein.

    Notice in (the above) that the Council goes out of its way to add a distinction to the sacrament of Penance. It specifies the sacrament of Penance ONLY when it says "THIS" sacrament. Not “A” sacrament. Furthermore, one cannot have perfect contrition through a mere human charity. One must have supernatural charity for contrition to be perfect. To be in possession of supernatural charity, one must first have received it in the sacrament of baptism. A Catechumen cannot make a perfect act of contrition through charity on a mere natural plane. One who has fallen AFTER Baptism, however, can certainly make a perfect act of contrition because he already has supernatural charity infused into him. Session 6, Chap 14 also emphasized the distinction in regards to Penance. Catechumens do not have supernatural faith, hope and charity as Trent, Session 6, Chap. 7 will now show…

    Council of Trent, Session 6, CHAPTER VII.
    What the justification of the impious is, and what are the causes thereof.
    This disposition, or preparation, is followed by Justification itself, which is not remission of sins merely, but also the sanctification and renewal of the inward man, through the voluntary reception of the grace, and of the gifts, whereby man of unjust becomes just, and of an enemy a friend, that so he may be an heir according to hope of life everlasting.
    Of this Justification the causes are these: the final cause indeed is the glory of God and of Jesus Christ, and life everlasting; while the efficient cause is a merciful God who washes and sanctifies gratuitously, signing, and anointing with the holy Spirit of promise, who is the pledge of our inheritance; but the meritorious cause is His most beloved only-begotten, our Lord Jesus Christ, who, when we were enemies, for the exceeding charity wherewith he loved us, merited Justification for us by His most holy Passion on the wood of the cross, and made satisfaction for us unto God the Father; the instrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism, which is the sacrament of faith, without which (faith) no man was ever justified; lastly, the alone formal cause is the justice of God, not that whereby He Himself is just, but that whereby He maketh us just, that, to wit, with which we being endowed by Him, are renewed in the spirit of our mind, and we are not only reputed, but are truly called, and are, just, receiving justice within us, each one according to his own measure, which the Holy Ghost distributes to every one as He wills, and according to each one's proper disposition and co-operation.
    For, although no one can be just, but he to whom the merits of the Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ are communicated, yet is this done in the said justification of the impious, when by the merit of that same most holy Passion, the charity of God is poured forth, by the Holy Spirit, in the hearts of those that are justified, and is inherent therein: whence, man, through Jesus Christ, in whom he is ingrafted, receives, in the said justification, together with the remission of sins, all these (gifts) infused at once, faith, hope, and charity. For faith, unless hope and charity be added thereto, neither unites man perfectly with Christ, nor makes him a living member of His body. For which reason it is most truly said, that Faith without works is dead and profitless; and, In Christ Jesus neither circumcision, availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith which worketh by charity. This faith, Catechumen's beg of the Church-agreeably to a tradition of the apostles-previously to the sacrament of Baptism; when they beg for the faith which bestows life everlasting, which, without hope and charity, faith cannot bestow.

    The following Canon reflects the above teaching…

    Council of Trent, Session 6, CANON XI.-If any one saith, that men are justified, either by the sole imputation of the justice of Christ, or by the sole remission of sins, to the exclusion of the grace and the charity which is poured forth in their hearts by the Holy Ghost, and is inherent in them; or even that the grace, whereby we are justified, is only the favour of God; let him be anathema.


    Remember that in order for contrition to be perfect it has to work through charity. Supernatural charity must be present in the soul. One who believes in BOD would have to believe that God would infuse someone with supernatural faith, hope and charity (not only without the sacrament of Baptism), but before contrition as well!

    Pope Paul III, Council of Trent, Sess. 6, Chap. 14 on Justification: For, on behalf of those who fall into sins after baptism, Christ Jesus instituted the sacrament of Penance, when He said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. Whence it is to be taught, that the penitence of a Christian, after his fall, is very different from that at (his) baptism; and that therein are included not only a cessation from sins, and a detestation thereof, or, a contrite and humble heart, but also the sacramental confession of the said sins,-at least in desire, and to be made in its season,-and sacerdotal absolution; and likewise satisfaction by fasts, alms, prayers, and the other pious exercises of a spiritual life; not indeed for the eternal punishment,-which is, together with the guilt, remitted, either by the sacrament, or by the desire of the sacrament,-but for the temporal punishment, which, as the sacred writings teach, is not always wholly remitted, as is done in baptism, to those who, ungrateful to the grace of God which they have received, have grieved the Holy Spirit, and have not feared to violate the temple of God.

    Again, this distinction of “desire” is for those who have fallen AFTER baptism in the sacrament of Penance only. Nowhere is it said that “desire” would suffice for the sacrament of Baptism. Trent taught that regeneration or being “born again” is absolutely needed for first justification.

    Council of Trent, Session 5, First Decree, #5: If any one denies, that, by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is conferred in baptism, the guilt of original sin is remitted; or even asserts that the whole of that which has the true and proper nature of sin is not taken away; but says that it is only rased, or not imputed; let him be anathema. For, in those who are born again, there is nothing that God hates; because, There is no condemnation to those who are truly buried together with Christ by baptism into death; who walk not according to the flesh, but, putting off the old man, and putting on the new who is created according to God, are made innocent, immaculate, pure, harmless, and beloved of God, heirs indeed of God, but joint heirs with Christ; so that there is nothing whatever to retard their entrance into heaven.

    Council of Trent, Session 6, Chap. 3: Who are justified through Christ.
    But, though He died for all, yet do not all receive the benefit of His death, but those only unto whom the merit of His passion is communicated. For as in truth men, if they were not born propagated of the seed of Adam, would not be born unjust,-seeing that, by that propagation, they contract through him, when they are conceived, injustice as their own,-so, if they were not born again in Christ, they never would be justified; seeing that, in that new birth, there is bestowed upon them, through the merit of His passion, the grace whereby they are made just. For this benefit the apostle exhorts us, evermore to give thanks to the Father, who hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light, and hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love, in whom we have redemption, and remission of sins.







    Catholic Encyclopedia – Heresy, 1913: The Pope himself, if notoriously guilty of heresy, would cease to be Pope because he would cease to be a member of the Church.

    Offline Ladislaus

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    Re: Necessity of Penance and Baptism - Trent, Session 14, Chap. 2
    « Reply #1 on: November 27, 2017, 08:35:55 AM »
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  • Does the following quote actually support the notion of Baptism of desire?

    Pope Julius III, Council of Trent, Sess. 14, Chap. 2, On Penance: This sacrament of Penance, moreover, is necessary for the salvation of those who have fallen after baptism, as baptism itself is necessary for those not yet regenerated.


    Ah, but this DOES prove that the condition of "necessity" is not violated per se by an in voto reception of the Sacrament ... since Trent taught that Penance could be received in voto.  So it's NOT a heretical denial of the necessity of Baptism to say that Baptism can be received in voto.


    Offline Lastdays

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    Re: Necessity of Penance and Baptism - Trent, Session 14, Chap. 2
    « Reply #2 on: November 27, 2017, 10:12:42 AM »
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  • Ah, but this DOES prove that the condition of "necessity" is not violated per se by an in voto reception of the Sacrament ... since Trent taught that Penance could be received in voto.  

    This is true. It is one of the reasons certain theologians, doctors and supporters of BOD may have come to a false position of BOD. It is somewhat deceptive when read in isolation. This is why I gave the supporting information Ladislaus. Trent, Session 14, Canon 2 has to be read in context with the rest of the Council. Just because necessity does not always mean "absolute" necessity, when Trent, Sess. 14, Chap. 2 is read along with the supporting data, it rules out Baptism of desire. It also shows that in comparing the necessity of the two sacraments for salvation, Trent was not referring to how the grace of each sacrament was received, but that the sacraments of Baptism and Penance were divine (not human) laws.

    Quote
    So it's NOT a heretical denial of the necessity of Baptism to say that Baptism can be received in voto.

    If the Church says something concerning faith and/or morals is absolutely necessary to received, then it would be heresy to say it is necessary merely in desire (even if the word "necessity" is not always taken absolutely by the Church). Of course this heresy can be "material", if there is good reason for the person being deceived. Once you deny dogma, you are not merely in error anymore. For example a protestant may say "I believe true faith is necessary for salvation. Good works are also necessary for salvation (but not absolutely necessary). Even if one does evil, it is enough that one "desires" to do good works." Now a protestant is a heretic for believing this, even if he tells you that the Church doesn't always regard "necessity" as being "absolute".
    Catholic Encyclopedia – Heresy, 1913: The Pope himself, if notoriously guilty of heresy, would cease to be Pope because he would cease to be a member of the Church.

    Offline Lastdays

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    Re: Necessity of Penance and Baptism - Trent, Session 14, Chap. 2
    « Reply #3 on: November 27, 2017, 10:40:41 AM »
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  • If the Church says something concerning faith and/or morals is absolutely necessary to received...
    To clarify: When the Church says something is necessary, it is absolutely necessary unless explicit exceptions are made by the Church. When I say Church, I mean the Magisterium in what they deliver, decree and/or define positively (concerning faith and/or morals) to the whole Church. Not what certain various theologians, doctors, clergymen teach, or what a Pope may have taught in a fallible capacity, or passively approved; for these teachings are subject to error and heresy. Trent infallibly made explicit exceptions to the reception of the sacrament of Penance. No explicit exceptions were made for the reception of the sacrament of Baptism by the Church in her infallible capacity to my knowledge. This is what supporters of BOD try to prove in various ways (including Trent, Sess. 14, Chap. 2)
    Catholic Encyclopedia – Heresy, 1913: The Pope himself, if notoriously guilty of heresy, would cease to be Pope because he would cease to be a member of the Church.

     

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